Archive for the ‘WWII History’ Category
1937 Japanese troops invade Shanghai, China.
1938 Nazis kill 35 Jews, arrest thousands and destroy Jewish synagogues, homes and stores throughout Germany. The event becomes known as Kristallnacht, the night of the shattered glass.
1940 Start of a counter-offensive by the British Army against the Italian forces that have advanced into Egypt.
Germany expels 180,000 Frenchmen from the recently-annexed Alsace-Lorraine region of France.
Neville Chamberlain, the former British prime minister, dies from cancer at the age of 71.
1941 Germans capture Yalta in Crimea.
Royal Navy Surface Force K from Malta annihilates an Italian convoy of seven supply ships and sinks two destroyers.
1942 Naval battles off Oran and Casablanca, result in three French destroyers being sunk.
US troops advance on both sides of Oran, taking 2,000 French prisoners after stiff resistance. German paratroops are landed in Tunisia without opposition from the French.
German planes transport troops to El Aouina Airfield in French Tunisia to combat Allied landings in Algeria.
Germans force Danish King Christian to appoint pro-Nazi Erik Scavenius as prime minister.
German spy Werner Janowski is landed by U-boat U-518 at New Carlisle, Quebec, but is arrested within hours on a tip from a suspicious hotel clerk.
General Charles de Gaulle is named president of the French Committee of National Liberation, the “Free French,” in the wake of the resignation of General Henri Giraud.
1944 The last Germans on Walcheren surrender. German forces evacuate the Moerdijk bridgehead across the Meuse river.
Total U.S. war casualties are now reported to have passed the 500,000 mark.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: June 26 WWII Today: July 25 WWII Today: July 26
1939 A bomb intended to kill Hitler explodes at the annual meeting of the veterans of the 1923 Nazi Putsch in Munich, but the FÃ¼hrer had already left the beer cellar. The German media accused Britain of orchestrating the assassination attempt on Hitler. Two British SIS agents, Major Richard Stevens and Captain S. Payne Best, are captured in Holland by the Germans.
1940 Italians begin big offensive in Albania.
RAF bomb Munich shortly after Hitler appears there. 1941 Army Group North advances across the Volkhov river and captures Tikhivin. Hitler claims Russian losses are 8 – 10 million, which is perhaps double the truth.
1942 On the anniversary of the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch in Munich, Hitler tells his old comrades that Stalingrad is practically in German hands, adding that he didn’t want to take that city just because it happens to bear the name of Stalin.
Operation ‘Torch’ begins with Anglo-American forces under Lieutenant General Eisenhower landing in Morocco and Algeria against minimal Vichy French resistance. Mersa Matruh is re-taken by British.
1943 Hitler in his last speech to Nazi Party says “We shall go on fighting past 12 o’clock”.
The Eighth Army gains the heights on the Sangro less than 100 miles East of Rome.
1944 For the first time in the history of the Third Reich, Hitler fails to appear in Munich to address “the Old Fighters” on the anniversary of the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch. Speculation mounts as Himmler reads a speech in the Fuhrer’s place.
25,000 Jews are forced to walk over 100 miles in rain and snow from Budapest to the Austrian border, followed by a second forced march of 50,000 persons, ending at Mauthausen Concentration camp.Take a look at these WWII posts: WWII Today: September 12 WWII Today: September 15 WWII Today: September 28
1939 The Belgium and Dutch Monarch’s emphasize their country’s neutrality, but offer to act as peace negotiators. Hitler rejects the proposal, as do both Britain and France.
Paul Thummel, a double agent, passes details of the German plans for the western offensive to the Czech government-in-exile.
1940 The Royal Air Force attacks the Krupp munition works in Essen.
1941 The RAF bombs Berlin with 169 aircraft, but 21 are lost.
USSR celebrates anniversary of the Revolution with a parade in Red Square, despite presence of the German army on outskirts of Moscow.
Speaking from Red Square in Moscow, with the spearheads of the Wehrmacht less than 100 miles from the capital, Stalin predicts that ‘the Fascist German invaders are facing disaster’.
The German High Command decides to resume the advance on Moscow as soon as possible, although by now it is estimated that 80 Russian divisions stand in their way.
German torpedo aircraft sink the soviet hospital ship Armenia killing approximately 7,000 people.
US Marine Corps approves establishment of women’s reserve.
1943 British troops launch a limited offensive along the coast of Burma.
1944 President Franklin D. Roosevelt won an unprecedented fourth term in office, defeating Thomas E. Dewey.
British Eighth Army opens drive for Forli, Italy.
Japanese execute Soviet spy Richard Sorge.Take a look at these other WWII posts: WWII Today: July 7 WWII Today: September 27 WWII Today: October 16
1939 The Gestapo rounds up 183 professors of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow and sends them to Sachsenhausen concentration camp near Berlin. In Soviet occupied Poland, Ukrainian peasants murder 200 Polish refugees after offering them food and accommodation.
First big air battle on Western Front.
1940 Under-Secretary for War announces measures to give Home guard more permanent shape and better equipment without changing its ‘local and friendly character’.
Britain promises financial assistance to Greece, starting with Â£5 million advance.
Royal Canadian Navy destroyer Ottawa and Royal Navy destroyer Harvester sink Italian submarine Faa di Bruno off Ireland.
1941 Stalin claims Axis casualties on Eastern Front now 4.5 million, when actually less than 700,000. The first cases of frostbite in the German Army are recorded.
The German blockade runner ‘Odenwald’ which is disguised as a US merchant is captured by the US cruiser Omaha and the destroyer Somers.
The Japanese Southern Army is ordered to prepare detailed operational plans for the up and coming offensive.
US gives Russia $1,000m interest free loan.
1942 Halted before Ordshonikidse in the Caucasus, the 13th Panzer Division is fighting to prevent itself being cut off by superior Soviet forces attacking its flanks and rear. In a speech to the Congress of Soviet Deputies, Stalin warns the United States and Britain that ‘the absence of a second front against Fascist Germany may end badly for all freedom loving countries, including the Allies themselves’. He declares that ‘the aim of the coalition is to save mankind from reversion to savagery and mediaeval brutality’.
Further progress made by the Eighth Army with 20,000 further Axis prisoners being claimed.
1943 The Russians take Kiev and split the Fourth Panzer Army into three.
The Japanese land reinforcements North of Empress Bay.
Middelburg is surrendered by the 2,000 Germans.
1944 Tito’s forces take Monastir in southern Yugoslavia and now control the whole border with Greece.
The Chinese 22nd Division crosses the Irrawaddy in northern Burma. 1945 Foreign Commissar Molotov announces that Russia will soon have the atomic bomb.
The first landing of a jet on a carrier takes place on USS Wake Island when an FR-1 Fireball touches down.Take a look at these other WWII posts: WWII Today: September 6 WWII Today: August 26 WWII Today: September 14
1940 Roosevelt is elected as President of USA for an unprecedented third term with 54 percent of the popular vote. He defeats Republican Wendell L. Willke.
Armed merchant-cruiser Jervis Bay sunk by pocket-battleship Admiral Scheer in attack on Atlantic convoy.
1941 Japanese war plans agreed at an imperial conference, with a deadline of December 1941. The US ambassador to Tokyo, Joseph C Grew, warns that war might come very suddenly.
1942 The British attack Rommel’s rearguard, which is now almost 100 miles to west of El Alamein. A peace treaty is signed in Madagascar with the Vichy French.
1943 US Navy carrier planes cripple a Japanese squadron at Rabaul, forcing six cruisers to withdraw North to Truk for repairs.
The US Fifth Army reaches the Sangro river in southern Italy.
China’s Wang Chingwei, Thailand’s Wan Waithayakon, Manchukuo’s Chang Chinghui, Burma’s Adipadi Ba Maw, India’s Subhas Chandra Bose, and the Philippines Jose Laurel attend the “Greater East Asia Family Conference” of November 5-6, 1943 in Tokyo. The Filipino delegate urges the Asian quislings to “extend all possible material and spiritual support to Japan.”
1944 174 Lancasters of No. 5 Group, RAF, breach the Dortmund-Ems Canal, one of Germanys main transport arteries.
British forces land at Salonika, in Greece.
The German 4th Army recaptures the town of Goldap in East Prussia.
U.S. planes pound the harbour at Manila in the Philippines and destroy 249 Japanese aircraft.Take a look at these other WWII posts: WWII Pin Up: Marie McDonald WWII Photos: Rosie the Riveter Words at War: Ave Duce
1939 The United States modified its neutrality stance in World War II to allow ”cash and carry” purchases of arms by belligerents, a policy favoring Britain and France.
Rear-Admiral Hugh Sinclair, head of British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), died of cancer. Succeeded by his deputy, Colonel Stewart Menzies.
1941 Finnish forces capture the Baltic naval base of Hang that Finland was compelled to lease to the Soviets in 1940.
Units of 11th Army capture Fedosia in the Crimea.
1942 The Italian 20th Motorized Corps is destroyed. Rommel re-issues his orders for retreat with only 12 tanks left. 10,724 Axis prisoners are taken by the British, including nine generals.
Carlson’s Raiders (US Marines) land at Aola Point, Guadalcanal to harass Japanese behind lines.
1943 Quote from Nazi newspaper, Der Stürmer, published by Julius Streicher – “It is actually true that the Jews have, so to speak, disappeared from Europe and that the Jewish ‘Reservoir of the East’ from which the Jewish pestilence has for centuries beset the peoples of Europe has ceased to exist. But the Fuhrer of the German people at the beginning of the war prophesied what has now come to pass.”
The U.S. Fifth Army captures Isernia, 50 miles North of Naples and links up with Eighth Army moving North West from Foggia. US casualties in Mediterranean since the landings in North Africa is given as 31,126.
A Russian breakout to the North of Kiev is achieved with their tank army’s driving throughout the night.Take a look at these other WWII posts: Words at War: Condition Red WWII Today: October 16 WWII Today: September 18
1940 U99 sinks armed merchant-cruiser Laurentic off Iceland.
Greek troops trap the Italian 3rd Alpine Division taking 5,000 prisoners. British troops arrive in Greece.
1941 Germans troops capture Kursk.
Off Greece, HMS Proteus makes first radar attack by a sub, damaging Italian tanker Tampico.
General Auchinleck is forced to postpone ‘Operation Crusader‘ for 1 week so as to enable the 1st South African Division, which had recently arrived from Abyssinia to under go more training.
Admiral Yamamoto’s plan to attack Pearl Harbor is approved.
1942 A British merchant seaman is hanged at Wandsworth for supplying the Germans with shipping information.
In an interview with American journalists, Stalin describes US military aid as of little effect.
Rejecting out of hand Field Marshal Rommel’s proposal to withdraw the Afrika Korps, now down to about 40 tanks, to the Fuka line, Hitler orders him to stand and fight.
On Guadalcanal, US Marines take Point Cruz and land at Koli Point.
1943 The USAAF launch a 400-bomber daylight raid on Wilhelmshaven with 600-fighter escort. At night the RAF drop over 2,000 tons of bombs on Dusseldorf in 27 minutes.
A massive Russian offensive from Dnieper bridgehead North of Kiev erupts.
Nazis carry out Operation Harvest Festival in occupied Poland, killing 42,000 Jews.
Heavy USAAF air attacks begin on Rabaul.
The Second Battle of Kiev began on the Eastern Front.
More than 18,000 Jewish prisoners were shot to death in a single day at the Majdanek concentration camp in Poland, in the Aktion Erntefest. The Erntefest was the traditional German “Harvest Festival”, and dance music was played over loudspeakers “to drown out the sounds of the killing and the dying”. The extermination of the estimated 18,400 members of the camp was carried out by order of the new camp commandant, German Lt. Colonel Martin Weiss, as part of Operation Reinhard.
Adolf Hitler issued Führer Directive Number 51, anticipating an invasion of Nazi-occupied France by the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada, in what Hitler described as “an Anglo-Saxon landing”. Troops and reinforcements were transferred to Western Europe, and the Anglo-Saxon landing would take place on D-Day, June 6, 1944.
The Raid on Choiseul ended indecisively.
1944 The 20th Gebirgsjaeger Army evacuates the mineral rich Petsamo region of northern Finland.Take a look at these other WWII posts: WWII Today: June 19 WWII Today: August 6 WWII Today: June 14
1939 The first transport of Polish women arrives at Ravensbruck concentration camp.
1942 Bitter street fighting continues in Stalingrad with neither side making much progress. Kleist’s final Caucasus advance ends as the 13th Panzer Division of III Panzer Corps approaches the outskirts of Ordshonikidse, the southeastern-most point in Russia to be reached by the Wehrmacht.German Newsreel
Operation ‘Supercharge’, the breakout at El Alamein gets under way. Rommel has only 32 Panzer’s left intact.
Lieutenant General Dwight D. Eisenhower arrives in Gibraltar to set up an American command post for the invasion of North Africa.
In New Guinea, Australians reoccupy Kokoda and its airfield on way from Port Moresby to Buna, New Guinea.
At Bell Island, Newfoundland, torpedo from U-boat U-518 hits dock, the only direct German attack on North American land in the war; two ships are sunk.
1943 The Battle of Empress Augusta Bay in Bougainville ends in U.S. Navy victory over Japan.
1944 The Canadians take Zeebrugge, the last corner of occupied Belgium, on Channel coast. The Canadian 2nd Division withdraws from a 700 yard deep bridgehead in Walcheren. All eligible Germans are ordered to enroll in Volksturm on pain of court-martial.
The United States 28th Division is ordered to clear the Germans out of the Hurtgen Forest and is nearly destroyed in the attempt.
German forces manage to stop the Russians at Kraisevo, enabling the Second Panzer Army to establish a firm line west of Belgrade.
The Red Army enters the southeastern suburbs of Budapest.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: August 28 WWII Today: August 16 WWII Today: August 14
1936 In a speech in Milan, Benito Mussolini described the alliance between Italy and Nazi Germany as an “axis” running between Rome and Berlin.
1940 British mine Bay of Biscay.
Turkey declares itself neutral in Greco-Italian war.
RAF and Fleet Air Arm aircraft attack targets in Naples and Brindisi on the Italian mainland and Albanian ports.
1941 The German government issues a statement denying the charges made by President Roosevelt that the US destroyers Greer and Kearney were attacked by German submarines without any provocation; that the exact opposite was true in that the U-boats fired torpedoes only after they were tracked and depth-charged for hours by these US vessels.
German troops of the 11th Army take Simferopol, the capital of the Crimea and close in on Sevastopol.
1942 In their advance toward Ordshonikidse in the Caucasus, units of III Panzer Corps capture Alagir on the upper Terek river.
1943 The Red Army achieves a landing across the Strait of Kerch from the Taman peninsula and also severs all German land links with the Crimea.
The US 3rd Marine Division lands at Empress Augusta Bay on Bougainville Island in the Solomon’s. A confused naval battle follows.
1944 The first of 9,000 balloon bombs launched against US from Tokyo reach the U.S.A. One bomb kills six people near Lakeview in Oregon.
“Operation: Infatuate I” begins as the British Royal Marines and Army Commandos land on Dutch island of Walcheren off the Scheldt Estuary during the in an attempt to clear the German defenders from this strategic island. “Operation: Infatuate II” was the amphibious landing at Westkapelle, also conducted on the morning of 1 November.
British Intelligence reports that Hitler probably committed suicide on the 30th April in Berlin after marrying his mistress, Eva Braun.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: April 25 WWII Today: April 17 WWII Today: April 11
1939 Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov boasts: “One swift blow to Poland, first by the German Army and then by the Red Army, and nothing was left of this ugly offspring of the Versailles Treaty!”. He also accuses the British of aggression.
1940 The Battle of Britain is now considered as over by the British Air Ministry.
British civilian casualty figures announced for October: 6,334 killed and 8,695 seriously injured.
British troops occupy Canea in Crete. Italians claim advance towards Salonika in Greece.
RAF bomb Naples for the first time.
1941 The US destroyer Reuben James escorting Convoy HX-156 is sunk by U-552 (Kapitainleutnant Erich Topp) with the loss of 100 of her crew. The destroyer is the first US naval casualty in the hitherto undeclared war between Germany and the United States that existed after President Roosevelt authorized the use of American naval vessels to escort Lend-Lease convoys bound for Britain.
British air raid casualties in October remain low at 262 killed. RAF raid occupied Europe on all but six days with Hamburg and Cologne bombed three times. Dover the only serious British casualty.
The RAF’s Mediterranean raids continue, with Benghazi being bombed 14 times and Tripoli 10 times.
1943 The U.S. Fifth Army resumes its offensive to the North of the Volturno.
1944 The British reach the river Mass, south of Rotterdam and establish a bridgehead. The Canadians reach Walcheren.
25 Mosquitoes make a highly successful low-level attack on the Gestapo HQ in Aarhus, Denmark, killing 200 Gestapo officials and destroying all records on the Dutch resistance movement.
On the orders of Prime Minister Churchill, British troops occupy Saloniki in Greece to assist the new government in its efforts to prevent a take-over by Communist insurgents in the wake of the recent withdrawal of German troops from Greece.Tale a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: June 13 WWII Today: September 2 WWII Today: July 26