Archive for the ‘WWII History’ Category
1937 The Japanese army occupies Nanking, China.
1939 In the south Atlantic, the pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee, fights an action against three British cruisers, HMS Achilles, HMS Ajax and HMS Exeter, which results in serious damage to both sides. HMS Exeter is rendered a blazing hulk and the Graf Spee withdraws to the neutral Uruguayan port of Montevideo for repairs.
1940 Petain dismisses his Vice-Premier, Laval.
British General Richard O’Conner decides his tank raid against Italian troops is going so well he will make it a full-fledged offensive. One of O’Conners officers reports having captured “five acres of officers, 200 acres of other ranks,” as the Italians surrender en masse.
Hitler issues Directive No. 20, the order for the preparation of Operation ‘Marita’, the plan for sending German forces to revive the bogged-down
Italian offensive in Albania.
Twenty four German divisions begin their redeployment to Romania, through Hungary as part of Directive No. 20, Hitler’s order for the preparation of Operation ‘Marita’, the attack on Greece.
1941 The Soviet press issues a triumphant statement on the repulse of the German Armies before Moscow. The Red Army launches a new counter-offensive using Timoshenko’s South West Front in an attack northwest against the juncture of Panzer Group 2 and the German 2nd Army between Yelets and Livny. This results in Panzer Group 2’s right flank being left open as the 2nd Army is forced to withdraw in order to save itself. Field Marshal von Brauchitsch meets Field Marshal von Bock, C-in-C of Army Group Centre and decide that Army Group Centre must withdraw some 90 miles west to take up a ‘winter line’. Secret orders are passed to this effect.
The British manage to turn back an Italian convoy, which is taking supplies to Libya, by making it believe that its under threat from the Mediterranean Fleet.
The British Governor of Hong Kong rejects a Japanese demand for his garrisons surrender. British troops in the southern tip of Burma begin toÂ withdraw north towards Rangoon.
A US naval task force under Rear-Admiral Frank J. Fletcher sets sail from Pearl Harbor with orders to relieve Wake Island.
1942 Rommel begins to retreat from his positions El Agheila, as the Eighth Army continues advance in to Libya.
The Japanese make successful new landings North of Buna.
1943 Captain. James Stewart of the US 445th BG flies his first mission in a B-24 Liberator bomber for the US Eighth Air Force in England.
54 Mustangs escorted B-17s 490 miles on a raid over Kiel, Germany, and for the first time in the war successfully defended the bombers for 40Â minutes over the targets, shooting down enemy fighter planes.
A war criminals trial at Kharkov accuses four Germans of murdering thousands of Russians in specially equipped carbon-monoxide murder vans. Army Group Centre becomes engaged in a series of heavy defensive battles in the area of Vitebsk.
1944 The USAAF make the first damaging raid on Japanese industrial targets.
German forces of 7th Armee withdraw in to the fortified positions of the Westwall.
The U.S. cruiser Nashville was badly damaged in a Japanese kamikaze suicide attack that claimed 138 lives.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: December 18 WWII Today: July 2 WWII Today: Jun 9
1937 The Japanese fire on British and U.S. ships on the Yangtze River in China, sinking the American ship Panay. The Japanese apologize to the United States and pay reparations; the British refuse to accept any Japanese apology.
1939 Finnish have some success against Russian troops at Tolvajrvi, inflicting heavy casualties.
Two German cruisers which are accompanied by 5 destroyers are damaged by torpedoes from the British submarine HMS Salmon as they are return from a mine laying operation of the northeast coast of England. Later in the day, HMS Salmon also gives warning under the ‘rules of war’ to a German liner, although it reaches the port of Bremen safely.
1940 Sheffield is heavily bombed by the Luftwaffe.
Philip Kerr, Lord Lothian, British ambassador to the US, dies in Washington DC
1941 The ship “Struma” leaves Romania for Palestine carrying 769 Jews but is later denied permission by British authorities to allow the passengers to disembark. In Feb. 1942, it sails back into the Black Sea where it is intercepted by a Soviet submarine and sunk as an “enemy target.”
Britain declares war on Bulgaria.
Bulgaria declares war on both Britain and the United States.
Hungary and Romania declare war on the United States.
The United States. declares war on Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria after receiving those country’s declarations of war.
1942 Manstein launches his counter attack with a hastily assembled force of 13 divisions, including three Panzer divisions with about 230 tanks to try and relieve Sixth Army at Stalingrad.
The 1,500 ton destroyer HMS Partridge is sunk off the coast of Algeria by U-565, commanded by Wilhelm Franken.
1943 Rommel becomes C in C of Army Group B, which covers the coastal defenses from Holland to Bay of Biscay.
A Czech-Soviet treaty of friendship is signed in Moscow.
1944 The underground V-weapon factory at Wittring is captured by the U.S. Third Army.
British launch Third Arakan Campaign toward Akyab, BurmaTake a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: May 11 WWII Today: December 5 WWII Bell Telephone Ad, December 1942
1939 Finnish ski troops attack Soviet supply line on Raate Road.
1940 Sidi Barrani is captured along with over 20,000 Italians, bringing the total captured to nearly 38,000 in 2 days, along with 237 guns and 73 tanks. At this time, Wavell decides to withdraw the 4th Indian Division and send it to the Sudan. It will be replaced by the 6th Australian Division, although it will take some days for it to be ready.
Battleship HMS King George V is commissioned.
1941 The British garrison in Hong Kong begins to withdraw from the mainland to Hong Kong Island itself. As a result of command and control problems, rumors and many desertions, the 11th Indian Division withdraws from Jitra towards Alor Star in northern Malaya, even though the Japanese troops facing them were inferior in numbers. The US garrison in Peking is forced to surrender to the Japanese.
Japanese troops attempt to land on Wake Island, but US Marine gunners and airmen repulse the first landing attempt and sink two Japanese destroyers in the process. Further Japanese landings take place in the Philippines.
In a speech before the Reichstag, Hitler, after denouncing the un-neutral and warlike anti-German policies of President Roosevelt and citing Germany’s obligations under the Tri-Partite Pact with Japan and Italy, declares war on the United States. Italy follows suit some hours later.
In response to Germany and Italy’s declaration of war, the US reciprocates and declares war on both Germany and Italy. Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic and Nicaragua also declare war onÂ Germany and Italy.
In the last week the Royal Navy has lost the destroyers Pentlan, Porcupine and Blean, off Algeria.
1943 A heavy USAAF raid on Emden kills 1,000 and makes 12,000 homeless.
Moroccan troops successful in first combat against Germans in Italy.
Field Marshal Kesselring permits German troops to occupy Monte Cassino in Italy, excluding the abbey itself.
1944 US Eighth Air Force launches largest mission to date—1586 bombers hit rail targets in western Germany.
First Japanese balloon bomb found in US, in Montana.
1945 William Halsey promoted to fleet admiral.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: July 16 WWII Today: February 23 WWII Today: April 9
1939 France bans sale of meat on Mondays, Tuesdays, and Fridays.
1940 Sidi Barrani is surrounded. Italian troops from the camps at Sofafi and Rabia flee west as the 7th Armoured divisions thrust threaten to encircle them.
1941 Karel Richter, a German spy who parachuted into Hertfordshire is executed at Wandsworth Prison.
British forces that had pushed into southern Thailand begin to fall back along with those from northern Malaya after the Japanese capture Kota Bharu airfield.
Due to the RAF’s heavy losses, the British Battleships Prince of Wales and Repulse are attacked and sunk of the north eastern coast of Malaya by Japanese aircraft flying from occupied French Indo-China.
Japanese troops land on and capture Guam. Japanese troops make landings on the northern tip of Luzon and the island of Camiguin in the Philippines.
British enter Tobruk, Libya, relieving 242-day German siege.
First US bombing mission of the war, as B-17s of the 19th Bomb Group attack Japanese ships off Luzon in the Philippines.
1942 The first transport of Jews from Germany arrives at Auschwitz.
Australian troops capture Gona and now control the whole of the Gona area in New Guinea.
1943 Allied forces bomb Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria.
Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a bill that postpones a draft of pre-Pearl Harbor fathers.
In Italy, British Eighth Army takes Vino Ridge in drive for Ortona.
1944 The US Third Army captures Hagenau and Saargemand.
Norwegian paratroopers cut rails to prevent German retreat from northern Norway.
On Leyte in the Philippines,U.S. 77th Infantry Division captures Ormoc, the main supply base, and clears Buri Airfield.
Japanese make their last seaborne reinforcement of Leyte.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: April 22 WWII Today: November 14 WWII Today: May 27
1939 In friendly fire incident near Metz, France, Cpl. Thomas Priday becomes the first British soldier killed in WWII.
1940 The Western Desert Force which is 30,000 strong and under the command of Wavell takes to the offensive ‘Operation Compass’. The 4th Indian division captures the Italian camps at Nibeiwa, Tumar East and West, while the 7th Armoured drives south of the camps at Sofafi and Rabia and turns north towards Buq Buq on the coast road. As column also advances along the coast road from Mersa Matruh towards Maktila as British warshipsÂ bombard both Maktila and Sidi Barrani. Italian troops eating breakfast at Nibeiwa in are interrupted by British and Indian tanks crashing through their camp. The Italian commander ignored a report of approaching tanks given earlier by a scout plane.
1941 Franklin D. Roosevelt tells Americans to plan for a long war.
The Red Army recaptures Tikhivin. Zhukov issues an order forbidding frontal attacks, in favor of envelopment and outflanking maneuvers, as heÂ says frontal attacks merely allow the Germans to withdraw in good order.
China declares war on Japan, Germany and Italy.
Bangkok is occupied by Japanese troops as they to push through Thailand towards the Burmese border. The Japanese also continue to land troops along the Kra Isthmus in southern Thailand and at Kota Bharu in north eastern Malaya.
Japanese aircraft attack Alor Star airfield, Malaya. From the two squadron of Blenheims based there, only one aircraft survives; its pilot, Flt Lt A S K Scarf single-handedly overcame strong enemy defences to attack Singora airfield in the North. After recovering to Alor Star, Flt Lt Scarf died from his wounds, and was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross five years later when the full facts of his heroism were established.
Japanese troops land on Tarawa and Makin in the Gilbert islands.
New England and New York City have first air raid alert; schools and defense plants are evacuated.
1942 Fresh US troops relieve the besieged 1st Marine Division on Guadalcanal.
1943 The Establishment of the Council of Freedom in Denmark is announced in Britain.
The Chinese retake Changteh in Hunan.
1944 The Russians reach the Danube north of Budapest.
In Formosa Strait, US subs Redfish and Sea Devil damage Japanese carrier Junyo beyond repair.
Bulgar and Yugoslav armies drive last German forces from Serbia and Macedonia.
1945 General Patton is seriously injured in car crash in Germany.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: January 27 WWII Today: January 19 WWII Today: May 14
1939 Two more U-boats are reported to have been destroyed as the British campaign to destroy three a week continues.
1940 Franco says Spain is not prepared to enter war.
Italian Naval Chief resigns, to be replaced by Admiral Campioni.
The Western Desert Force is now fully concentrated for ‘Operation Compass’.
Greeks take Argyrokastro and Delvino.
1941 Congress declares war after personal address by Roosevelt. But the vote is not unanimous. The lone dissenting vote is cast by Representative Jeanette Rankin, who was a dissenter also when Congress approved U.S. entry into World War I.
Britain and dominions declare war on Japan.
The Soviet offensive against Army Group Centre succeeds in breaking through the German lines in many places, causing hasty withdrawals by ill-prepared and frost-bitten troops that are forced to abandon much heavy equipment that was immobilized by the below-zero weather.
In occupied Poland, near Lodz, Chelmno extermination camp becomes operational. Jews taken there are placed in mobile gas vans and driven to a burial place while carbon monoxide from the engine exhaust is fed into the sealed rear compartment, killing them. The first gassing victims include 5,000 Gypsies who had been deported from the Reich to Lodz.
The Eighth Army officially relieves the Tobruk garrison.
Japanese aircraft bomb Singapore, which as yet has not blacked out. The raid inflicts about 200 casualties, mostly civilians. Japanese troops land at Singora and Patani on the Kra peninsula in southern Thailand, which surrenders the same day. Japanese make landings at Kota Bharu on the north eastern coast of Malaya, although troops of the 8th Indian Brigade put up strong resistance against these Japanese landings. However, rumors that the Japanese had broken through the defenders, caused the RAF to evacuate Kota Bharu airfield and forced the 8th Indian Brigade to withdraw to the south after dark. Japanese troops launch an offensive against the new territories, a part of the British colony of Hong Kong. The Japanese overrun the US garrisons in Shanghai and Tientsin.
Japanese General Tomoyuki Yamashita begins his attack against the British army at Singapore. By nightfall, 60 of the 110 British and Australian aircraft defending Malaya and Singapore had been destroyed.
The British battleships Prince of Wales and Repulse, set sail from Singapore in an attempt to intercept and destroy the Japanese landings that are taking place at Kota Bharu on the north eastern coast of Malaya, while the RAF manages to damage three of enemy’s transports.
Japanese aircraft attack Guam and Wake Islands in the central pacific. The Japanese bomb the US controlled Philippine islands of Luzon and Mindanao from their bases in Formosa.
1942 German troops occupy the port of Bizerte in Tunisia.
1943 Lieutenant General Carl Spaatz becomes the chief of U.S. strategic air forces in Europe.
Australians troops capture Wareo in New Guinea.
U.S. carrier-based planes sink two cruisers and down 72 planes in the Marshall Islands.
1944 German troops evacuate JÃ¼lich on the Roer river.
The Red Army begins an offensive aimed at encircling Budapest.
A second Japanese airborne counter-attack on Leyte achieves some success against US airfields.
The USAAF begins a 72-day bombardment of Iwo Jima Island 700 miles to the South of Japan.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: November 24 WWII Today: December 11 WWII Today: October 24
1939 Norway, Denmark and Sweden declare their neutrality. The Soviet Ninth Army launches an offensive in central Karelia. Britain and France agree to send troops and material to help Finland fight against the Soviet Union. However, there is virtually no way to get these forces to Finland and so the promises mean little.
Italy reaffirms her neutrality.
1940 The Admiral Hipper leaves Kiel for an anti-shipping sortie into the Atlantic.
1941 At 6:15 Honolulu time, the first wave of Japanese aircraft take of from their carriers which are located about 200 miles north of Hawaii. At 7:50, 43 fighters, 51 dive-bombers, 70 torpedo-bombers and 50 ordinary bombers arrive over Hawaii. They launch attacks against the airfields at Wheeler, Kaneohe, Ewa and Hickham and against the American warships anchored at ‘Battleship Row’. Surprise was complete and within a few minutes 5 battleships and 2 light cruisers had been sunk and a large number of aircraft (180) destroyed on the ground. Within an hour, the second wave of Japanese strike aircraft (36 fighters, 80 dive-bombers, 54 bombers) had arrived over the target, sinking a further 3 destroyers and damaging another battleship. By 10:00 the attack was over and the casualties could be accounted for. The Americans lost 2,729 killed and 1,178 wounded, while the Japanese losses amounted to just 29 aircraft (59 airmen) and five mini-submarines. The Japanese launch air attacks against Manila.
Japan declares war on Britain and the USA.
The US begins mobilization.
Field Marshal von Brauchitsch after suffering a recent heart attack tenders his resignation to Hitler, although this is not accepted immediately. Zhukov issues orders to the left flank armies of his West Front to begin offensive operations against Panzer Group 2, which is attempting to withdraw out of a salient near Tula. The aim of this offensive would be to cut off Panzer Group 2 and destroy it in the area of Stalinogorsk.
Panzer Army Afrika retreats westwards through Libya, completing its withdrawal to the Gazala line.
1942 The US Navy launches the Battleship New Jersey, one of the four “Iowa Class” battleships, the largest ever built for the US Navy, and 11 other ships on the anniversary of Pearl harbor.
British Commandos make daring raid on Bordeaux harbor, rowing 50 miles up the River Gironde and attaching limpet mines to German shipping.
US make a beachhead South of Buna, cutting off Japanese forces there.
1943 The Cairo conference ends.
1944 Nazi women’s leader Gertrud Scholtz-Klink asks all German women over 18 to volunteer to serve in army or Luftwaffe to release men to the front.
1945 Japanese Gen. Tomoyuki Yamashita is sentenced to death for his role in atrocities in the Philippines.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: November 19 WWII Today: October 1 WWII Today: November 15
1938 France and Germany sign a treaty of friendship.
1939 Soviet attacks against the Mannerheim line are beaten back by the Finns with heavy Red Army casualties.
Germany warns neutral ships to resist the British blockade.
1940 The Western Desert Force begins Training Exercise No.2. This was a 60 mile approach march to their concentration point, designated Piccadilly, approximately 20 miles south of Maktila.
War Guilt trial in Vichy France indicts MM Blum, Daladier, La Chambre and Gen. Gamelin.
Greeks occupy Santi Quaranta, Albania. Italian Supreme Commander Badoglio resigns ˜at his own request; replaced by Gen. Cavallero.
SS executes mentally ill inmates in Stralsund and Chelm, Poland, including Hitler’s second cousin, Aloisia Veit.
General Ugo Cavallero assumes command of Italian army (Comando Supremo) after Marshal Badoglio resigns.
1941 Zhukov extends the Red Army’s counter-offensive along the whole Moscow axis in an attempt to prevent Panzer Groups 3 and 4 from outflanking Moscow from the northeast. To launch this offensive, Zhukov uses 4 armies on the right flank of his own West Front.
An RAF Hudson aircraft spots Japanese transports sailing west off Cape Cambodia towards Malaya. The British, having feared a surprise Japanese attack for a number of months now, had developed a plan codenamed ‘Matador’, to advance forces into southern Thailand should the Japanese attack, in order to deny the Japanese use of the airfields and ports at Patani and Singora. However, the implications of violating Thai neutrality and more importantly the possible US reactions, dissuaded the British from launching ‘Matador’.
Battleships USS Oklahoma and USS Nevada arrive at Pearl Harbor.
Roosevelt makes a personal appeal to the Japanese Emperor Hirohito for peace.
1942 Germans victorious in tank battle at Djebel el Guessa, Tunisia.
1943 Monte Casino is finally taken by U.S. Fifth Army.
Soviets take Yeysk on Sea of Rostov, cutting off German Army Group A.
1944 The Japanese capture Tushan, south of the Nationalist capital of Chungking.
1945 The United States extends a $3 billion loan to Great Britain to help compensate for the termination of the Lend-Lease agreement.
USASTAF (USA Strategic Air Forces) based in the Pacific, is inactivated.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: September 2 WWII Today: March 3 WWII Today: December 9
1939 Heavy fighting in Karelia, Finland.
Two Polish submarines escape from the Baltic Sea to join Royal Navy.
1940 McGovern’s ILP peace amendment is rejected by House of Commons, 341 votes to 4.
The German draft plan for the Invasion of Russia Operation ‘Otto’ is presented to Hitler.
Admiral William Leahy takes oath of office as US Ambassador to Vichy France.
1941 The Battleship USS Arizona arrives at Pearl Harbor.
USS Lexington departs with Marine aircraft for Midway, leaving no carriers at Pearl Harbor.
James J. Kilroy of Boston hired at Fore River Shipyard, Quincy MA to check work of riveters; his “Kilroy Was Here” mark on ships becomes legendary.
Britain declares war on Finland, Hungary and Rumania.
With the main forces of Army Group Centre just 19 miles from Moscow, Hitler abandons the offensive for winter and agrees to some local withdrawals to more defensive terrain.Â Zhukov launches a counter-offensive across the frozen upper Volga in the area of Kalinin, to the northwest of Moscow. He uses Konev’s Kalinin Front for the purpose, but despite the severe cold and exhaustion of the German troops, his forces meet severe resistance, with only the 31st Army enjoying any success as it pushed towards Turginovo. Hungary declares war on Britain. Romania declares war on Britain.
In order to mount a final attack on the British forces around Bir El Gobi, Rommel orders the evacuation of the eastern part of the Tobruk perimeter, but the attack fails.
Japanese fleet is officially reported moving south.
1943 The first Japanese daylight raid on Calcutta is mounted with many reported killed.
P-51 Mustang fighter planes first escort US Eighth Air Force on bombing missions, extending range of raids.
Japanese planes bomb Calcutta (350 killed), including US Tenth Air Force airfields (500 casualties).
1944 The U.S. Third Army advances into Germany along a 30-mile front.
The British Eighth Army takes Ravenna in and cuts the rail link to Bologna.
Malinovsky attacks with two armies from North East of Budapest and makes a 60-mile advance in eight days.
US launches final offensive on Leyte in the Philippines, driving into the Ormoc Valley.
Victory ship SS Red Oak Victory commissioned into US Navy as ammunition ship at Richmond, CA (currently at Rosie the Riveter WWII Home Front National Park, Richmond, CA).
1945 Six US Navy planes disappear in the “Bermuda Triangle,” creating its reputation.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: November 3 WWII Today: April 7 WWII Today: November 1
1939 The German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee sinks the liner Doric Star off the western coast of South Africa.
1940 Greeks capture Premeti, Pogradec and the Albanian port of Sarande.
F4F-3 Wildcat fighter enters service with US Navy.
1941 Temperature falls to -31°F (-37°C) on Russian Front.
The Japanese Embassy in Washington begins to leave, destroying code books and personal files in the process.
Chicago Tribune and Washington Times-Herald publish news of classified unapproved US Victory Program war plans, leaked to the papers by isolationist Sen. Burton Wheeler, creating cries of warmongering among isolationists.
In Libya, the German army under General Rommel retreats to Gazala
1942 The U.S.A 5th Air Force launches its first raid against the Italian port of Naples.
German forces in Tunisia capture Tebourba.
President Roosevelt cancels Depression-era Works Progress Administration (WPA).
US Ninth Air Force, based in Egypt, bombs Naples (Rommel’s supply port) in first US attack on Italy
1943 Tito’s Partisans set up a provisional government in the liberated part of Yugoslavia.
Units of the German 11th Army begin an offensive to eliminate the Soviet bridgehead at Kerch in the eastern Crimea.
The second Cairo conference opens with Churchill, Roosevelt and the Turkish President Inonu.
Bolivia declares war on all the Axis powers.
US submarine Sailfish sinks Japanese escort carrier Chuyo off Japan, 1250 killed.
1944 Athens is now under martial law.
Italian partisans liberate Ravenna in first major planned partisan attack in Italy.
British Fourteenth Army begins major offensive in Burma, crossing Chindwin River.
1945 The U.S. Senate votes to allow the USA to join the UN and to permit the UN to use American forces to preserve peace and security.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: October 29 WWII Today: October 28 WWII Today: August 22