Archive for the ‘WWII History’ Category
1940 In Britain, ration books are introduced as program expands—each person to receive 4 oz of bacon or ham, 8 oz of butter, and 12 oz of sugar weekly.
Finnish troops capture 1,000 Russian soldiers near Suomussalmi.
1941 96,000 people now are sleeping in the Underground and Tube stations, 40,000 less than in October.
President Roosevelt submits his budget, 60% ($17,500,000,000) of which is designated for defense.
1942 US Army Forces in British Isles (USAFBI) established under Maj. Gen. James Chaney.
Japanese take Jesselton, capital of British North Borneo.
James Landis named to succeed Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia as head of US Office of Civil Defense.
1943 General Rokossovsky, C-in-C of Don Front, issues a surrender ultimatum to the 6th Army, guaranteeing “their lives and safety and after the end of the war their return to Germany”. He also promises that “…medical aid will be given to all wounded, sick and frost-bitten…” Paulus rejects this demand for surrender.
Count Ciano, Mussolini’s one-time foreign minister, ambassador, and son-in-law, faces a tribunal for his role in the vote to oust Il Duce. His wife will escape to Switzerland the next day, but the count will die before a firing squad on January 11.
British turn over control of Madagascar, except Diego Suarez area, to Free French.
US takes Tarakena, New Guinea.
1944 Kirovograd falls to Russians.
The trial of Count Ciano and 18 other Fascists responsible for Mussolini’s downfall opens at Castel Vecchio, in Verona.
First flight of Lockheed XP-80 jet plane at Muroc Army Air Base, but it won’t be ready for combat until the war is over.
1945 Germans demolish Ruhr floodgates, flooding area west of Köln (Cologne).
Japanese execute Filipino resistance leader Col. Pastor Martelino.
In Placer County, CA, the home of a recently returned Japanese-American family is attacked (shed burned, shots fired); first of 30 similar incidents on West Coast.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: November 25 WWII Today: April 30 WWII Today: June 17
1940 General Semyon Timoshenko takes command of all Soviet forces in Finland and begins to build up his forces for a decisive offensive.
Battle of Raate Road ends in Finnish victory; over 10,000 Soviets killed.
1941 Tobruk is surrounded, but the British are unable to assault it immediately as supplies and reinforcements need to be brought up.
1942 British forces continue to retreat south through central Malaya as the Japanese force a crossing of the river Slim. The British commander, General Arthur E. Percival, hopes to be able to hold at Johore until at least mid February.
Japanese troops complete their capture of Sarawak and also take Jesselton in northern Borneo.
In Malaya, Japanese break through Indian defenses at the Slim River.
In the Philippines, Japanese begin siege of the Bataan Peninsula.
Off Honshu, sub USS Pollack sinks Japanese collier Unkai Maru No.1, the first confirmed sinking by a US sub in the Pacific.
US Navy issues warning that 16 U-boats are suspected to be near the East Coast.
Roosevelt’s first War Budget includes $13,250 million of defense expenditure.
The Soviet North West Front begins an offensive south of Lake Ilmen in an attempt to encircle Demyansk. At the same time the newly created Volkhov Front launches an attack to force the Germans back from around Leningrad.
1944 The U.S. Air Force announces the production of the first jet-fighter, Bell P-59 Airacomet.
French resistance sabotages electricity supply in Tulle.
In Second Arakan Campaign in Burma, RAF & US Tenth Air Force begin air supply to West African troops.
1945 U.S. air ace Major Thomas B. McGuire, Jr. is killed in the Pacific.
German Navy begins evacuating troops trapped by the Soviet advance along the Baltic in Lithuania.
Off Manila Bay, US destroyers Charles Ausburne, Braine, Russell, and Shaw sink Japanese destroyer Hinoki; the last surface naval engagement of the Pacific war.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: March 23 Words at War: They Call It Pacific WWII Today: February 26
1940 British declare Germans may not use Norwegian waters.
Norway & Sweden forbid Allied troops from crossing their territory to aid Finland.
1941 President Roosevelt makes his “Four Freedoms” speech in his State of the Union address to Congress and repeats his proposal for Lend-Lease program to send supplies to Britain.
The Luftwaffe launches its first attacks against British convoys bound for Malta in the Mediterranean.
Churchill demands that troops be released from Wavell’s offensive and sent to Greece..
1942 Roosevelt announces that US forces are to be based in UK.
Roosevelt’s State of the Union address calls for the production of 60,000 aircraft and 1.2 million tons of shipping in 1942.
Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS) is formed, consisting of the British Chiefs of Staff & US Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Rommel’s battered forces reach the Tripolitanian frontier having evaded all British attempts to cut them off.
In Moscow, the Russian Foreign Minister denounces German atrocities in occupied Russia, where in Kiev alone 52,000 people have been massacred. ‘The Soviet Union will never forget or forgive’.
1943 British & Indian troops renew offensive on Arakan Peninsula in Burma.
Free French advancing north from Chad take Oum-el-Arameb in southern Libya.
1944 The Red Army crosses the 1939 Polish frontier after a 170-mile advance in just two weeks.
The allies announce that jet-propelled aircraft will soon to be in production. The Air Ministry says that Bomber Command dropped 157,000 tons of bombs on Germany in 1943, while the Luftwaffe dropped only 2,400 tons on Britain.
Major General James Doolittle assumes command of US Eighth Air Force in England.
1945 The ban on dancing is lifted in Finland, where it had been illegal to dance during wartime.
Boeing B-29 bombers in the Pacific strike new blows on Tokyo and Nanking.
Edith Frank, mother of Anne, dies in Auschwitz.
Future president Lt. (j.g.) George H.W. Bush marries Barbara Pierce in Rye, NY, just a few weeks after his return from the Pacific.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: February 23 Words at War: The Navy Hunts the CGR-3070 WWII Today: Christmas December 25
1940 Hore-Belisha resigns as Secretary of State for War and is replaced by Oliver Stanley.
In the Battle of Suomussalmi, Finns encircle 18,000 Russians north of Lake Ladoga, Finland.
1941 General Bergonzoli surrenders the Italian XXIII Corps at Bardia to the Australians. 45,000 Italian prisoners and 130 tanks are captured by the Australians for just 500 casualties.
Australians capture Bardia in Libya, taking 45,000 Italian POWs. Record-breaking
British pilot Amy Johnson, who navigated solo from Britain to Australia, is killed when the trainer plane she’s ferrying crashes into the Thames Estuary.
1942 80,000 US and Filipino troops successfully complete their withdrawal to the Bataan Peninsula, along with 26,000 civilians, although food stocks are only sufficient to sustain 43,000 men for 6 months. The Japanese quickly close up to the first defensive position, which is based on Mounts Santa Rosa and Natib.
German forces in the Crimea repulse a Soviet landing at Eupatoria.
In the Philippines, US & Filipino forces complete retreat into Bataan peninsula; troops put on half rations.
In US, “enemy aliens” are required to surrender transmitters, shortwaves, and precision cameras.
Franklin D. Roosevelt appears on cover of Time Magazine as 1941 Man of the Year.
1943 US Fifth Army formed in Oujda, Morocco under Lt. Gen. Mark Clark.
Off Guadalcanal, Mk. 32 proximity-fuzed shells are used for the first time by USS Helena.
Scientist George Washington Carver dies in Tuskegee AL, age 81
1944 Koniev’s 2nd Ukrainian Front extends the Russian general offensive in temperatures of -20°C.
The last of four German blockade-runners from Japan are sunk in the South Atlantic.
In the US Eighth Air Force in England, the 91st Bomb Group becomes the first group to complete 100 missions.
1945 Australian troops land at Saposa to engage Japanese forces at Waitavolo.
As Allied invasion force approaches Lingayen Gulf on Luzon, kamikazes damage US heavy cruiser Louisville, US destroyer Helm, US escort carriers Manila Bayand Savo Island, US destroyer escort Stafford, heavy cruiser HMAS Australia, and destroyer HMAS Arunta (54 killed on all ships).Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: April 16 WWII Today: September 9 WWII Today: June 15
1940 The 16th Australian Brigade marches through the streets of Sydney.
Britain requisitions all merchant ships for war effort.
1941 Free French lead Tuareg and Tibesti tribesmen from Chad to destroy Italian air base at Murzuk, Libya, having crossed 468km of desert.
German-born singer-actress Marlene Dietrich becomes US citizen.
1942 The Red Army captures Kaluga to the southwest of Moscow.
Chiang Kai-shek is appointed as Supreme allied commander in China.
Japanese begin pre-invasion air attacks on the major British naval and air base of Rabaul in the Bismarcks in the South Pacific.
1943 The Japanese Navy orders the evacuation of Guadalcanal by the end of the month.
Polish resistance attacks Germans in Czestochowa but fail, 251 killed.
Earl Warren inaugurated for first of three terms as California governor, but declines to have ceremony due to war.
1944 The Germans announce the mobilization of school children for war work.
Church authorities at the Abbey of Monte Cassino give Luftwaffe permission to remove artwork to Germany.
Fascist northern Italy seizes Jewish assets and forbids Jews from owning land or stock.
The Soviet 27th Army took Bila Tserkva southwest of Kiev.
The Soviet 1st Ukrainian Front pushed Erich von Manstein’s Army Group South back beyond the pre-war Polish border at Sarny.
The U.S. Fifth Army attacked the southern end of the Gustav Line along a 10-mile front.
1945 The USA issue’s its casualty figures to 21st December 1944 as 135,323 killed, 362,824 wounded, 75,844 missing and 64,148 captured.
In Burma, British secure Akyab Island; Burma is now secured from Akyab to Mandalay, and north of the Irrawaddy River.
The American escort carrier USS Ommaney Bay was severely damaged in the Sulu Sea by a Japanese kamikaze attack. The ship was abandoned and then scuttled by a torpedo from the destroyer USS Burns.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Yank Pin Up: Diana Mumby WWII Today: February 22 WWII Today: June 11
1940 President Roosevelt calls for $1.8 billion in defense appropriations.
1941 The Luftwaffe’s X Fliegerkorps arrives in Italy.
In their first major action in WWII the Australian 6th Division breaks through the Italian defences around Bardia,
After suffering heavy losses, the Italian Air Force withdraws its aircraft from supporting the German Luftwaffe in the Battle of Britain.
1942 At the U.S. Army Air Forces Headquarters James H. Doolittle begins planning an air raid against Japan
Churchill and Roosevelt announce the unified ABDA (American, British, Dutch and Australian) Command in the Southwest Pacific, under General Wavell, with Lieutenant General Brett as his deputy.
Japanese land at Brunei on Borneo in Netherlands East Indies.
Gen. Chiang Kai-shek named Commander in Chief of Allied Forces in China.
1943 Army Group A begins a general withdrawal from the Caucasus.
Convoy JW-51B arrives without loss at Murmansk.
Soviets take Mozdok and Malgobek in Caucasus.
Germans defeat French and take Fondouk Pass in Tunisia.
1944 Monty is reported to be back in Britain in order to take command of the British contingent of the Allied Expeditionary Force.
The US Fifth Army begins an offensive against the German forces in Italy who are entrenched in the Gustav Line along the Rapido river, with its centre at Cassino.
Top US Marine ace, Maj. Gregory “Pappy” Boyington, shot down by Japanese Zero near Rabaul, but he survives the war as a POW.
In the Solomons, US launches offensive on New Britain from Cape Gloucester.
1945 The U.S. First Army counter-attacks on the northern side of the Ardennes salient.
British troops take Akyab in western Burma, unopposed.
The fighting ends in Manila.
US Navy organizes hunter-killer group to intercept U-boat believed to be bound for New York with V-weapons.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: February 3 WWII Today: February 6 WWII Today: April 27
1932 Japanese forces in Manchuria set up a puppet government known as Manchukuo.
1936 In Berlin, Nazi officials claim that their treatment of Jews is not the business of the League of Nations.
1940 Charles Edison (son of Thomas) becomes US Secretary of the Navy.
1941 Royal Navy bombards Bardia in North Africa day and night.
1942 The Red Army achieves a breakthrough at Rzhev.
British troops are outflanked by the Japanese at Kampar in Malaya and begin to withdraw to the river Slim.
Japanese troops enter Manila and the U.S. Naval base at Cavite falls as US-Filipino forces retreat into the Bataan Peninsula.
British and South African troops take Bardia, Libya after a long siege.
Thirty-three members of a German spy ring under Fritz Duquesne are convicted in the largest espionage case in US history.
US Army orders 300,000 D-ration chocolate bars from Hershey, designed to melt at higher temperatures and not taste too good, so
Romanian dictator Ion Antonescu meets with Hitler and expresses concern about the unfolding disaster at Stalingrad.
Germans begin a withdrawal from the Caucasus.
The allies take Buna in New Guinea.
The Libian port of Tripoli is closed to Axis ships due to Allied bombing.
1944 Hitler’s Chancellery is reported 75 per cent destroyed with many trapped in the shelters below after a direct hit during an RAF raid on Berlin.
Wing Commander John Cunningham makes it 19-all with Wing Commander J. R. Braham in night-fighter air-ace’s ‘league’.
US Marines land at Saidor in northern New Guinea.
1945 Danish saboteurs wreck a V2 factory in Copenhagen.
Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsey dies in plane crash near Paris and becomes the fourth prominent allied leader to die like this.
American Sikorsky helicopter is used in convoy escort for first time.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: December 21 WWII Today: November 21 Words at War: D-Day 5th War Bond Drive Special
1940 Conscription extended to 20 – 27 in Britain.
1941 Hitler, in his New Year’s order of the day to the German armed forces, promises “…completion, on the Western Front, of the greatest victory in our history…”
The Western Desert Force is renamed as the XIII Corps.
1942 British forces take Bardia, along with 8,000 Axis prisoners.
Roosevelt and Churchill sign the “Declaration by the United Nations” at the Arcadia Conference in Washington; 24 other Allied nations will sign it, promising not to seek a separate peace.
US discontinues automobile manufacturing for civilian sale for the duration; 500,000 remain in stock.
The Rose Bowl held at Duke in Durham NC due to ban on large gatherings on the West Coast (Oregon State defeats Duke 20-16).
1943 The 1st Panzer Army in the Caucasus begin withdrawing from the Terek front to avoid being cut off by Soviet forces attacking from the northeast toward Rostov-on-Don.
In Rose Bowl, Georgia beats UCLA 9-0 in both schools’ first appearance in Rose Bowl and UCLA’s first bowl game.
1944 Field Marshal Rommel is appointed C-in-C of Army Group B, the German forces in France north of the Loire river.
General Mark Clark takes over the U.S. Seventh Army in addition to the command of the U.S. Fifth Army.
Gen. Alexander Vandegrift replaces Gen. Thomas Holcomb as commandant, US Marine Corps.
The US penny production switched from steel to an alloy with copper from used shell casings.
1945 Germans launch Nordwind offensive against US Seventh and French Armies into Alsace toward Strasbourg, and 900 Luftwaffe aircraft strafe Allied air bases in France and Belgium, destroying 200 aircraft but losing 300.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Winchester Ad WWII Today: November 23 WWII Today: August 5
1939 Allied merchant shipping sunk by U-boats, world-wide from the out break of war to year’s end 1939 is 165 ships, equaling 693,557 gross tons. 9 U-boats were lost worldwide in the same period.
Finnish troops destroy yet another Russian division.
New Year’s Eve observances in Britain, France and Germany are very subdued due to blackout and noise restrictions. Most celebrations are held in private homes with the windows shuttered.
German Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels makes a radio address reviewing the official Nazi version of the events of 1939. No predictions are made for 1940 other than saying that the next year “will be a hard year, and we must be ready for it.”
Generalissimo Francisco Franco makes a radio broadcast asking “all Spaniards in this period of depression which follows any war to close the mouths of grumblers and not permit the enemies of the state to take advantage of the situation.”
Japan and the Soviet Union sign an accord on fishing rights in adjacent territorial waters.
1940 British civilian casualties figures for the month: 3,793 killed, 5,244 injured.
Allied merchant shipping sunk by U-boats, world-wide from January to year’s end 1940 is 567 ships, equaling 2,771,483 gross tons. 24 U-boats were lost worldwide in the same period.
RAF bombers attack Vlorë on the Greco-Italian front, Rotterdam and IJmuiden in the Nazi-occupied Netherlands, and the German cities of Emmerich am Rhein and Cologne.
Hitler issues a New Year’s Order of the Day to Germany’s armed forces, declaring “the year 1941 will bring us, on the Western Front, the completion of the greatest victory of our history
1941 All further German attacks against the Crimean fortress of Sevastopol are halted for the winter.
Allied merchant shipping sunk by U-boats, world-wide from January to year’s end 1941 is 503 ships, equaling 2,530,011 gross tons. 35 U-boats were lost worldwide in the same period.
Lieutenant General George H. Brett takes command of US forces in Australia.
Admiral Chester W. Nimitz is appointed to command the US Asiatic Fleet.
Venezuela breaks off diplomatic relations with Germany, Italy and Japan.
Panamanian cargo ship Ruth Alexander is bombed and damaged by a Japanese flying boat in Makassar Strait. A Dutch Dornier 24 rescues the 48 survivors and the ship was abandoned, finally sinking two days later.
1942 In what is to become known as the ‘Battle of the Barents Sea’, the German pocket battleship LÃ¼tzow, cruiser Admiral Hipper and 6 escorting destroyers are intercepted at 9.30am by the British cruisers HMS Jamaica, HMS Sheffield and five destroyers before they can reach convoy JW-51B.
During the naval exchanges that follow, the British lose 1 destroyer and a minesweeper, which had been searching for stragglers from the convoy,
whilst the Germans lose a destroyer. By Midday the Germans have decided to withdraw and the battle is over.
Allied merchant shipping sunk by U-boats, world-wide from January to year’s end 1942 is 1,323 ships, equaling 7,047,744 gross tons. 87 U-boats were lost worldwide in the same period.
The Red Cross are now spending Â£375,000 per month on food parcels for allied POWs.
After five months of battle, Emperor Hirohito allows the Japanese commanders at Guadalcanal to retreat.
1943 Allied merchant shipping sunk by U-boats, world-wide from January to year’s end 1943 is 588 ships, equaling 3,042,371 gross tons. 242 U-boats were lost worldwide in the same period.
Russians retake Zhitomir, 80 miles East of Kiev.
The Battle for Razabil in the Arakan begins between British and Japanese forces.
1944 Allied merchant shipping sunk by U-boats, world-wide from January to year’s end 1944 is 251 ships, equaling 978,892 gross tons. 252 U-boats were lost worldwide in the same period.
Rochefort is back in U.S. hands. Third Army launch new counter-offensive near Bastogne. At about 11pm the Germans launch their ‘Nordwind’ offensive towards Strasbourg.
Hungary declares war on Germany.
1946 President Truman officially proclaimed the end of hostilities in World War II.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: November 30 WWII Today: December 1 Words at War: Gunners Glory
1939 Finnish troops at Suomussalmi, completely destroy the Russian 163rd Infantry Division.
1940 California’s first freeway, the Arroyo Seco Parkway, opens between Los Angeles and Pasadena.
U.S. Vice Admiral Claude C. Bloch writes a letter to the Navy Department complaining of inadequate defenses at Pearl Harbor
1941 The Russian success in the Crimea continues as the Germans make a hurried evacuation of Kerch.
German Gen. Rommel retreats to El Agheila, Libya and the positions held before his April offensive against the British.
The Congress Party in India supports the British war effort, while Gandhi resigns his leadership in protest.
Kaiser Shipyards in Richmond, CA launches its first Liberty-class cargo ship.
Operation Crusader ends in Allied victory.
The Battle of Kampar begins in Malaya.
Japanese forces occupy Kuantan.
Ernest King assumes command of the United States Fleet.
Soviet troops make amphibious landings in the eastern Crimea and took Kerch and Feodosia. The Germans pause their assault on Sevastopol in order to deal with these forces.
Winston Churchill makes the “Chicken Speech” to Canadian Parliament. In reference to a comment made by Philippe Pétain that Britain would be invaded and “have its neck wrung like a chicken” by the Germans in three weeks, Churchill exclaimed, “Some chicken! Some neck!”
German submarines U-705 and U-756 are commissioned.
1942 The allies cut Japanese forces in two at Buna.
The German pocket battleship LÃ¼tzow, cruiser Admiral Hipper and 6 destroyers leave Altenfjord and head north to intercept convoy JW-51B.
Henry Kaiser opens Kaiser steel plant in Fontana, CA.
Eighth Air Force first uses “combat box” formation to better protect bombers from German fighters.
1943 The Russians report 30-60 mile advances from the Kiev salient along a 180-mile front.
British/Indians launch Second Arakan Campaign toward Akyab, Burma.
US Marines secure crucial airfield at Cape Gloucester, New Britain in the Solomons.
General Eisenhower traveled to the headquarters of France’s General Charles de Gaulle at Algiers, and agreed to de Gaulle’s request that French troops be allowed to accompany the other Allied forces during the liberation of Paris.
The Soviets continued to advance in the Ukrainian sector as the 1st Tank Army drove the German XLVIII Panzer Korps out of Koziatyn.
1944 The Germans launch a heavy attack on the Bastogne, Belgium, corridor in the Ardennes.
The British attack on Houffalize is halted by bitter German resistance.WWII Pin Up: Dusty Anderson WWII Today: October 6 WWII Today: Jun 28