Archive for the ‘WWII History’ Category
1940 Hore-Belisha resigns as Secretary of State for War and is replaced by Oliver Stanley.
In the Battle of Suomussalmi, Finns encircle 18,000 Russians north of Lake Ladoga, Finland.
1941 General Bergonzoli surrenders the Italian XXIII Corps at Bardia to the Australians. 45,000 Italian prisoners and 130 tanks are captured by the Australians for just 500 casualties.
Australians capture Bardia in Libya, taking 45,000 Italian POWs. Record-breaking
British pilot Amy Johnson, who navigated solo from Britain to Australia, is killed when the trainer plane she’s ferrying crashes into the Thames Estuary.
1942 80,000 US and Filipino troops successfully complete their withdrawal to the Bataan Peninsula, along with 26,000 civilians, although food stocks are only sufficient to sustain 43,000 men for 6 months. The Japanese quickly close up to the first defensive position, which is based on Mounts Santa Rosa and Natib.
German forces in the Crimea repulse a Soviet landing at Eupatoria.
In the Philippines, US & Filipino forces complete retreat into Bataan peninsula; troops put on half rations.
In US, “enemy aliens” are required to surrender transmitters, shortwaves, and precision cameras.
Franklin D. Roosevelt appears on cover of Time Magazine as 1941 Man of the Year.
1943 US Fifth Army formed in Oujda, Morocco under Lt. Gen. Mark Clark.
Off Guadalcanal, Mk. 32 proximity-fuzed shells are used for the first time by USS Helena.
Scientist George Washington Carver dies in Tuskegee AL, age 81
1944 Koniev’s 2nd Ukrainian Front extends the Russian general offensive in temperatures of -20°C.
The last of four German blockade-runners from Japan are sunk in the South Atlantic.
In the US Eighth Air Force in England, the 91st Bomb Group becomes the first group to complete 100 missions.
1945 Australian troops land at Saposa to engage Japanese forces at Waitavolo.
As Allied invasion force approaches Lingayen Gulf on Luzon, kamikazes damage US heavy cruiser Louisville, US destroyer Helm, US escort carriers Manila Bayand Savo Island, US destroyer escort Stafford, heavy cruiser HMAS Australia, and destroyer HMAS Arunta (54 killed on all ships).Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: April 16 WWII Today: September 9 WWII Today: June 15
1940 The 16th Australian Brigade marches through the streets of Sydney.
Britain requisitions all merchant ships for war effort.
1941 Free French lead Tuareg and Tibesti tribesmen from Chad to destroy Italian air base at Murzuk, Libya, having crossed 468km of desert.
German-born singer-actress Marlene Dietrich becomes US citizen.
1942 The Red Army captures Kaluga to the southwest of Moscow.
Chiang Kai-shek is appointed as Supreme allied commander in China.
Japanese begin pre-invasion air attacks on the major British naval and air base of Rabaul in the Bismarcks in the South Pacific.
1943 The Japanese Navy orders the evacuation of Guadalcanal by the end of the month.
Polish resistance attacks Germans in Czestochowa but fail, 251 killed.
Earl Warren inaugurated for first of three terms as California governor, but declines to have ceremony due to war.
1944 The Germans announce the mobilization of school children for war work.
Church authorities at the Abbey of Monte Cassino give Luftwaffe permission to remove artwork to Germany.
Fascist northern Italy seizes Jewish assets and forbids Jews from owning land or stock.
The Soviet 27th Army took Bila Tserkva southwest of Kiev.
The Soviet 1st Ukrainian Front pushed Erich von Manstein’s Army Group South back beyond the pre-war Polish border at Sarny.
The U.S. Fifth Army attacked the southern end of the Gustav Line along a 10-mile front.
1945 The USA issue’s its casualty figures to 21st December 1944 as 135,323 killed, 362,824 wounded, 75,844 missing and 64,148 captured.
In Burma, British secure Akyab Island; Burma is now secured from Akyab to Mandalay, and north of the Irrawaddy River.
The American escort carrier USS Ommaney Bay was severely damaged in the Sulu Sea by a Japanese kamikaze attack. The ship was abandoned and then scuttled by a torpedo from the destroyer USS Burns.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Yank Pin Up: Diana Mumby WWII Today: February 22 WWII Today: June 11
1940 President Roosevelt calls for $1.8 billion in defense appropriations.
1941 The Luftwaffe’s X Fliegerkorps arrives in Italy.
In their first major action in WWII the Australian 6th Division breaks through the Italian defences around Bardia,
After suffering heavy losses, the Italian Air Force withdraws its aircraft from supporting the German Luftwaffe in the Battle of Britain.
1942 At the U.S. Army Air Forces Headquarters James H. Doolittle begins planning an air raid against Japan
Churchill and Roosevelt announce the unified ABDA (American, British, Dutch and Australian) Command in the Southwest Pacific, under General Wavell, with Lieutenant General Brett as his deputy.
Japanese land at Brunei on Borneo in Netherlands East Indies.
Gen. Chiang Kai-shek named Commander in Chief of Allied Forces in China.
1943 Army Group A begins a general withdrawal from the Caucasus.
Convoy JW-51B arrives without loss at Murmansk.
Soviets take Mozdok and Malgobek in Caucasus.
Germans defeat French and take Fondouk Pass in Tunisia.
1944 Monty is reported to be back in Britain in order to take command of the British contingent of the Allied Expeditionary Force.
The US Fifth Army begins an offensive against the German forces in Italy who are entrenched in the Gustav Line along the Rapido river, with its centre at Cassino.
Top US Marine ace, Maj. Gregory “Pappy” Boyington, shot down by Japanese Zero near Rabaul, but he survives the war as a POW.
In the Solomons, US launches offensive on New Britain from Cape Gloucester.
1945 The U.S. First Army counter-attacks on the northern side of the Ardennes salient.
British troops take Akyab in western Burma, unopposed.
The fighting ends in Manila.
US Navy organizes hunter-killer group to intercept U-boat believed to be bound for New York with V-weapons.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: February 3 WWII Today: February 6 WWII Today: April 27
1932 Japanese forces in Manchuria set up a puppet government known as Manchukuo.
1936 In Berlin, Nazi officials claim that their treatment of Jews is not the business of the League of Nations.
1940 Charles Edison (son of Thomas) becomes US Secretary of the Navy.
1941 Royal Navy bombards Bardia in North Africa day and night.
1942 The Red Army achieves a breakthrough at Rzhev.
British troops are outflanked by the Japanese at Kampar in Malaya and begin to withdraw to the river Slim.
Japanese troops enter Manila and the U.S. Naval base at Cavite falls as US-Filipino forces retreat into the Bataan Peninsula.
British and South African troops take Bardia, Libya after a long siege.
Thirty-three members of a German spy ring under Fritz Duquesne are convicted in the largest espionage case in US history.
US Army orders 300,000 D-ration chocolate bars from Hershey, designed to melt at higher temperatures and not taste too good, so
Romanian dictator Ion Antonescu meets with Hitler and expresses concern about the unfolding disaster at Stalingrad.
Germans begin a withdrawal from the Caucasus.
The allies take Buna in New Guinea.
The Libian port of Tripoli is closed to Axis ships due to Allied bombing.
1944 Hitler’s Chancellery is reported 75 per cent destroyed with many trapped in the shelters below after a direct hit during an RAF raid on Berlin.
Wing Commander John Cunningham makes it 19-all with Wing Commander J. R. Braham in night-fighter air-ace’s ‘league’.
US Marines land at Saidor in northern New Guinea.
1945 Danish saboteurs wreck a V2 factory in Copenhagen.
Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsey dies in plane crash near Paris and becomes the fourth prominent allied leader to die like this.
American Sikorsky helicopter is used in convoy escort for first time.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: December 21 WWII Today: November 21 Words at War: D-Day 5th War Bond Drive Special
1940 Conscription extended to 20 – 27 in Britain.
1941 Hitler, in his New Year’s order of the day to the German armed forces, promises “…completion, on the Western Front, of the greatest victory in our history…”
The Western Desert Force is renamed as the XIII Corps.
1942 British forces take Bardia, along with 8,000 Axis prisoners.
Roosevelt and Churchill sign the “Declaration by the United Nations” at the Arcadia Conference in Washington; 24 other Allied nations will sign it, promising not to seek a separate peace.
US discontinues automobile manufacturing for civilian sale for the duration; 500,000 remain in stock.
The Rose Bowl held at Duke in Durham NC due to ban on large gatherings on the West Coast (Oregon State defeats Duke 20-16).
1943 The 1st Panzer Army in the Caucasus begin withdrawing from the Terek front to avoid being cut off by Soviet forces attacking from the northeast toward Rostov-on-Don.
In Rose Bowl, Georgia beats UCLA 9-0 in both schools’ first appearance in Rose Bowl and UCLA’s first bowl game.
1944 Field Marshal Rommel is appointed C-in-C of Army Group B, the German forces in France north of the Loire river.
General Mark Clark takes over the U.S. Seventh Army in addition to the command of the U.S. Fifth Army.
Gen. Alexander Vandegrift replaces Gen. Thomas Holcomb as commandant, US Marine Corps.
The US penny production switched from steel to an alloy with copper from used shell casings.
1945 Germans launch Nordwind offensive against US Seventh and French Armies into Alsace toward Strasbourg, and 900 Luftwaffe aircraft strafe Allied air bases in France and Belgium, destroying 200 aircraft but losing 300.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Winchester Ad WWII Today: November 23 WWII Today: August 5
1939 Allied merchant shipping sunk by U-boats, world-wide from the out break of war to year’s end 1939 is 165 ships, equaling 693,557 gross tons. 9 U-boats were lost worldwide in the same period.
Finnish troops destroy yet another Russian division.
New Year’s Eve observances in Britain, France and Germany are very subdued due to blackout and noise restrictions. Most celebrations are held in private homes with the windows shuttered.
German Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels makes a radio address reviewing the official Nazi version of the events of 1939. No predictions are made for 1940 other than saying that the next year “will be a hard year, and we must be ready for it.”
Generalissimo Francisco Franco makes a radio broadcast asking “all Spaniards in this period of depression which follows any war to close the mouths of grumblers and not permit the enemies of the state to take advantage of the situation.”
Japan and the Soviet Union sign an accord on fishing rights in adjacent territorial waters.
1940 British civilian casualties figures for the month: 3,793 killed, 5,244 injured.
Allied merchant shipping sunk by U-boats, world-wide from January to year’s end 1940 is 567 ships, equaling 2,771,483 gross tons. 24 U-boats were lost worldwide in the same period.
RAF bombers attack Vlorë on the Greco-Italian front, Rotterdam and IJmuiden in the Nazi-occupied Netherlands, and the German cities of Emmerich am Rhein and Cologne.
Hitler issues a New Year’s Order of the Day to Germany’s armed forces, declaring “the year 1941 will bring us, on the Western Front, the completion of the greatest victory of our history
1941 All further German attacks against the Crimean fortress of Sevastopol are halted for the winter.
Allied merchant shipping sunk by U-boats, world-wide from January to year’s end 1941 is 503 ships, equaling 2,530,011 gross tons. 35 U-boats were lost worldwide in the same period.
Lieutenant General George H. Brett takes command of US forces in Australia.
Admiral Chester W. Nimitz is appointed to command the US Asiatic Fleet.
Venezuela breaks off diplomatic relations with Germany, Italy and Japan.
Panamanian cargo ship Ruth Alexander is bombed and damaged by a Japanese flying boat in Makassar Strait. A Dutch Dornier 24 rescues the 48 survivors and the ship was abandoned, finally sinking two days later.
1942 In what is to become known as the ‘Battle of the Barents Sea’, the German pocket battleship LÃ¼tzow, cruiser Admiral Hipper and 6 escorting destroyers are intercepted at 9.30am by the British cruisers HMS Jamaica, HMS Sheffield and five destroyers before they can reach convoy JW-51B.
During the naval exchanges that follow, the British lose 1 destroyer and a minesweeper, which had been searching for stragglers from the convoy,
whilst the Germans lose a destroyer. By Midday the Germans have decided to withdraw and the battle is over.
Allied merchant shipping sunk by U-boats, world-wide from January to year’s end 1942 is 1,323 ships, equaling 7,047,744 gross tons. 87 U-boats were lost worldwide in the same period.
The Red Cross are now spending Â£375,000 per month on food parcels for allied POWs.
After five months of battle, Emperor Hirohito allows the Japanese commanders at Guadalcanal to retreat.
1943 Allied merchant shipping sunk by U-boats, world-wide from January to year’s end 1943 is 588 ships, equaling 3,042,371 gross tons. 242 U-boats were lost worldwide in the same period.
Russians retake Zhitomir, 80 miles East of Kiev.
The Battle for Razabil in the Arakan begins between British and Japanese forces.
1944 Allied merchant shipping sunk by U-boats, world-wide from January to year’s end 1944 is 251 ships, equaling 978,892 gross tons. 252 U-boats were lost worldwide in the same period.
Rochefort is back in U.S. hands. Third Army launch new counter-offensive near Bastogne. At about 11pm the Germans launch their ‘Nordwind’ offensive towards Strasbourg.
Hungary declares war on Germany.
1946 President Truman officially proclaimed the end of hostilities in World War II.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: November 30 WWII Today: December 1 Words at War: Gunners Glory
1939 Finnish troops at Suomussalmi, completely destroy the Russian 163rd Infantry Division.
1940 California’s first freeway, the Arroyo Seco Parkway, opens between Los Angeles and Pasadena.
U.S. Vice Admiral Claude C. Bloch writes a letter to the Navy Department complaining of inadequate defenses at Pearl Harbor
1941 The Russian success in the Crimea continues as the Germans make a hurried evacuation of Kerch.
German Gen. Rommel retreats to El Agheila, Libya and the positions held before his April offensive against the British.
The Congress Party in India supports the British war effort, while Gandhi resigns his leadership in protest.
Kaiser Shipyards in Richmond, CA launches its first Liberty-class cargo ship.
Operation Crusader ends in Allied victory.
The Battle of Kampar begins in Malaya.
Japanese forces occupy Kuantan.
Ernest King assumes command of the United States Fleet.
Soviet troops make amphibious landings in the eastern Crimea and took Kerch and Feodosia. The Germans pause their assault on Sevastopol in order to deal with these forces.
Winston Churchill makes the “Chicken Speech” to Canadian Parliament. In reference to a comment made by Philippe Pétain that Britain would be invaded and “have its neck wrung like a chicken” by the Germans in three weeks, Churchill exclaimed, “Some chicken! Some neck!”
German submarines U-705 and U-756 are commissioned.
1942 The allies cut Japanese forces in two at Buna.
The German pocket battleship LÃ¼tzow, cruiser Admiral Hipper and 6 destroyers leave Altenfjord and head north to intercept convoy JW-51B.
Henry Kaiser opens Kaiser steel plant in Fontana, CA.
Eighth Air Force first uses “combat box” formation to better protect bombers from German fighters.
1943 The Russians report 30-60 mile advances from the Kiev salient along a 180-mile front.
British/Indians launch Second Arakan Campaign toward Akyab, Burma.
US Marines secure crucial airfield at Cape Gloucester, New Britain in the Solomons.
General Eisenhower traveled to the headquarters of France’s General Charles de Gaulle at Algiers, and agreed to de Gaulle’s request that French troops be allowed to accompany the other Allied forces during the liberation of Paris.
The Soviets continued to advance in the Ukrainian sector as the 1st Tank Army drove the German XLVIII Panzer Korps out of Koziatyn.
1944 The Germans launch a heavy attack on the Bastogne, Belgium, corridor in the Ardennes.
The British attack on Houffalize is halted by bitter German resistance.WWII Pin Up: Dusty Anderson WWII Today: October 6 WWII Today: Jun 28
1939 Finnish forces launch a successful counter attack to the North of Lake Ladoga.
Finnish ski troops tear up the Leningrad-Murmansk rail line.
1940 The worst Luftwaffe raid on London causes 1500 fires in the “Second Great Fire of London,” but St. Paul’s Cathedral survives.
President Roosevelt makes “Arsenal of Democracy” radio address in a fireside chat, promising aid to Britain.
Vichy France creates a commission for Jewish affairs.
The Italian troopship Sardegna is torpedoed and sunk by the Greek submarine Proteus, which was then rammed and sunk by the destroyer Antares.
1941 Soviet troops make an amphibious landing at Feodosiya on the south coast of the Crimea in order to relive pressure against Sevastopol and hopefully clear the Germans from the Crimea.
British evacuate from British Borneo to Dutch Borneo.
Japanese bomb Corregidor in the Philippines for the first time.
German submarine U-602 was commissioned.
1942 The British cruisers HMS Jamaica and HMS Sheffield join convoy JW-51B south of Bear Island as its makes the dangerous passage through the Barents Sea.
German army begins retreat from Caucasus.
British Eighth Army occupies Buerat and Bu Ngem, Libya.
1943 The Eighth 2,000-ton air raid is flown against Berlin by the RAF on the third anniversary of the fire bombing of London.
General Eisenhower orders Allied Commanders to, as far as possible, avoid attacking the historic monuments of Italy. “Today we are fighting in a country which has contributed a great deal to our cultural inheritance,” Eisenhower wrote. “We are bound to respect those monuments so far as war allows. If we have to choose between destroying a famous building and sacrificing our own men, then our men’s lives count infinitely more and the buildings must go. But the choice is not always so clear-cut as that. In many cases the monuments can be spared without any detriment to operational needs.”
US Marines secure Cape Gloucester airfield on New Britain.
1944 In Italy, Germans retreat in Serchio Valley after counterattack against US Fifth Army.
British Commandos carried out Operation Partridge over the night of December 29/30, a diversionary raid behind German lines in Italy.
RAF drops 12,000-pound bombs on German U-boat pens in Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
The Siege of Budapest by Soviet and Romanian forces begins.
German submarine U-322 was depth charged and sunk south of Weymouth, Dorset by Canadian corvette Calgary.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: February 2 WWII Today: November 17 WWII Today: November 25
1939 First flight of the XB-24 Liberator, at Lindbergh Field, San Diego, the prototype for what will be America’s most-produced four-engine bomber of the war.
The German submarine U-30 spotted the British battleship HMS Barnham west of the Butt of Lewis in the Outer Hebrides and hit it with a torpedo. Four crew members were killed but the Barham was able to make it back to Liverpool where it underwent six months of repairs.
The British Minister of Food W.S. Morrison announced that starting January 8, rationing would be expanded to include butter, bacon, ham and sugar.
1940 Mussolini asks Hitler for support, to help the bogged down Italian forces with their offensive against the Greeks in Albania.
As food becomes scarce in Italy, the Italian government announces that in extreme cases people caught hoarding food might be executed.
1941 General Wavell takes over command of the British forces defending Burma and India.
Lieutenant eneral Thomas Jacomb Hutton assumed command of Burma Army.
US authorizes first contingent of Navy Construction Battalions: the “Seabees.”
Japanese paratroopers land on Sumatra.
The British cargo ship Volo was torpedoed and sunk off the coast of Egypt by German submarine U-75. The destroyer HMS Kipling chased the U-boat down and sank U-75 with depth charges.
1942 The Japanese withdrawal from Buna ordered.
In the face of the continuing Soviet offensive toward Rostov-on-Don, Army Group A is ordered to withdraw its forces from the Caucasus.
Sterilization experiments on women at Birkenau begin.
General De Gaulle welcomes Giraud’s appointment and calls for French unity.
1943 The British military mission arrives in Turkey to discuss the supply of arms and troops as agreed at Cairo. However, the Turks make surprising new demands, which cannot be met.
The Eighth Army and Canadians take Ortona, Italy after fierce house-to-house fighting.
In Naples, US Army opens mass delousing stations for civilians to control typhus epidemic.
The Battle of the Bay of Biscay was fought between British and German warships. The result was a victory for the Royal Navy as two German torpedo boats and the destroyer Z27 were sunk with no British losses in return.
1944 U.S. troops gain ground against the Ardennes salient.
Corrie ten Boom is released from Ravensbrück concentration camp due to a clerical error; she would later write The Hiding Place about her experiences. Musical On the Town premieres on Broadway.
1945 The United Sstates Congress officially recognizes the Pledge of Allegiance.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: July 8 WWII Today: July 12 WWII Today: October 13
1939 The Finnish 9th Division attacks towards Suomussalmi, recapturing the village and forcing the Russian 163rd Division to retreat in panic.
US State Department protests British removal and censorship of US mail from neutral ships.
1941 Japanese bomb Manila despite “open city” declaration.
Australian Prime Minister John Curtin proclaims, “Australia looks to America.”
Japanese sub I-25 shells US tanker Connecticut off the mouth of the Columbia River.
US announces rationing of tires and all rubber goods, effective January 5.
British and Norwegian Commandos raid the Norwegian port of Vågsøy, causing Hitler to reinforce the garrison and defenses.
The Australian Prime Minister, Curtin, announces, “Australia looks to America”.
The Red Army continues its counter-offensive in the Kalinin area.
1942 Hitler agrees to allow the retreat by Army Groups A and Don to a line 150 miles west of Stalingrad.
General Giraud becomes the leader of French Africa.
Germans form Smolensk Committee to persuade Soviet POWs to fight for Axis.
1943 In Italy, the Allied advance halts at Monte Cassino.
President Roosevelt signed an order seizing the railroads of the United States in advance of a December 30 strike of rail workers, and at 7:00 pm Washington time, soldiers from the U.S. Army began taking control of lines affected by the impending walkout.
1944 British troops reach Foul Point in Arakan.
The Russians capture Gran, this cutting all communications with Budapest and trapping five German and Hungarian divisions.
Soviets encircle Budapest, Hungary, beginning 102-day siege.
The siege of Bastogne ends in U.S. Victory.
German submarine U-877 was depth charged and sunk northwest of the Azores by Canadian corvette HMCS St. Thomas using Squid.
1945 The US, UK, and USSR agree to govern Korea jointly for five years.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: July 19 WWII Today: November 2 WWII Cartoon Ben Dix