Archive for the ‘WWII History’ Category
1938 In a move that increases tensions between the United States and Japan, the USS President Coolidge is forced to unload nearly $3 million worth of gold and silver before it is allowed to leave the Japanese controlled port of Shanghai.
1940 British Summer Time to be continued throughout winter.
Hitler meets Petain at Montoire, which leads ‘to agreement in principle of collaboration’, but Petain rejects the idea of a Franco-German military alliance.
RAF night raids on Berlin and Hamburg inflict serious civilian casualties for the first time.
1941 The Ukrainian city of Kharkov falls to the German 6th and 17th Armies of Army Group South.
1942 U-boat control in France creates wolfpack ‘Battleaxe’. This will operate in the North Atlantic until it is disbanded on the 1st November 1942 and will include at one time or another U-134, U-203, U-409, U-509, U-510, U-572, U-604 and U-659.
RAF bombs Turin, the first bombing of Italy from British bases.
The land battle begins in earnest around Henderson Field on Guadalcanal, with the elite Japanese 2nd Division being wiped out.
Main detachment of Western Naval Task Force leaves Hampton Roads, VA & Casco Bay, ME for Operation Torch landings in Morocco, under Rear Adm. Kent Hewitt.
1943 An E-boat attack on a convoy off the Norfolk coast result in four E-boats being sunk and one British trawler.
The Red Army achieves a breakthrough on the Dnieper river and captures Melitopol.
1944 The aircraft carrier USS Princeton is sunk by a single Japanese plane during the Battle of Leyte Gulf.
Fifty black sailors are convicted of mutiny in the controversial Port Chicago case; after only 80 minutes deliberation, all 50 men given 15-year sentences
Australians secure Goodenough Island off New Guinea.
1945 Vidkun Quisling, Norway’s wartime minister president, is executed by firing squad for collaboration with the Nazis.
The United Nations formally comes into being with twenty-nine ratifications having been received.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: September 16 Carole Landis: Yank Magazine Pin Up WWII Today: August 18
1940 Hitler meets Franco, the Spanish head of state at Hendaye near the French-Spanish border. Franco declares ‘Spain will gladly fight at Germany’s side’, but remains non-committal regarding Spain’s entry into the war.
The RAF continue its attacks on Berlin.
1941 De Gaulle meets French Resistance and asks to spare the innocent and bide their time.
It is decided that British forces should make their main approach on Gondar in Abyssinia, from the direction of Adowa due to the better road conditions.
Nazis forbid emigration of Jews from the Reich.
1942 Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt arrives in London for a three-week visit as guest of the King.
The battleship Tirpitz leaves Bogenfjord and moves south to Lofjord near Trondheim, where it is to be refitted.
The Western Task Force, destined for North Africa, departs from Hampton Roads, Virginia.
The Second Battle of El Alamein begins with a 1,000-gun bombardment. The Eighth Army gains ground on a 6-mile front and repulses Axis counter-attacks.
The RAF launches bombing raids against the Italian cities of Genoa and Turin.
The previously undefeated Sandai division of the Japanese army suffers its first loss of the war whe it fails to capture Henderson Airfield on Guadalcanal.
1943 A German torpedo boat flotilla sinks the Royal Navy cruiser Charybdis and the destroyer Limborne in a Channel duel.
Russians take Melitopol after 10-days of fighting; Dnepropetrovsk falls to Malinovsky, while a tank army reaches Krivoi Rog.
1944 The 3rd Panzer Corps begin a six day counter attack around Debrecen.
The decisive three-day battle of Leyte Gulf begins. The Japanese lose four carriers, three battleships, six heavy and four light cruisers, 11 destroyers, one submarine and some 500 planes, with approximately 10,000 sailors killed. The first organised use of Kamikaze’s by the Japanese are reported.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: October 14 WWII Today: October 18 Words at War: Assignment USA
1939 “Elections” are held in Soviet-occupied Poland now called “Western Byelorussia” and “Western Ukraine.” The USSR confiscates all property including bank accounts, and replaces Polish currency with the ruble. Poles are fired from their jobs and thrown into jail as the NKVD compiles lists forÂ deportation. Factories, hospitals, schools, are dismantled and shipped to the USSR. Polish education and language is phased out; libraries areÂ closed and books burned. Churches are destroyed and priests arrested. Even the wearing of crosses is forbidden. Owning a typewriter is now a crime.
1940 On a convoy in the North Atlantic, Royal Canadian Navy destroyer Margaree collides with freighter Port Fairy in poor visibility, 400 miles west ofÂ Ireland. It is the first convoy mission for the destroyer, and 140 lives are lost.
British Ambassador in Moscow Sir Stafford Cripps tries to woo Russians with three-point co-operation plan.
Deportation of 29,000 German Jews from Baden, the Saar, and Alsace-Lorraine into Vichy France.
1941 50 hostages shot in Nantes, France as reprisal for assassination of the German military commander. 50 more to die if the assassin isn’t caught.
German Major shot in Bordeaux 100 arrested, 50 shot immediately.
Russian partisans explode a bomb at Odessa, killing several Romanian and German officers and soldiers. Romanian Dictator Ion Antonescu orders twoÂ hundred Russians executed for every officer killed and one hundred Russians executed for every enlisted man killed.
1942 A Royal Proclamation is signed that reduces the British call-up age to 18.
Against fierce Soviet resistance, the 6th Army capture most of the Red October Steelworks and Barricades factories in the northern part of Stalingrad.
SS put down a revolt at Sachsenhausen by a group of Jews about to be sent to Auschwitz.
First transports for Operation Torch, the Allied landings in North Africa, depart Britain (cargo ships).
1943 The Germans publish a plan to kidnap Hitler, which was allegedly drawn up by the Italians.
Operation ‘Corona’ (the jamming of German night-fighter communications) begins during an RAF raid on Kassel.
1944 The Red Army continues its drive west and captures several towns near the Russian German border.
First use of napalm in the Pacific Theater—US fighters drop napalm on oil storage tanks on Ceram Island.
Capt. Alexander Patch III, son of the commanding general of the US Seventh Army, killed in action in France.1945 In Hawaii, final performance of Irving Berlin’s This Is the Army; Berlin donated all proceeds to the Army Emergency Relief Fund. Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: October 17 WWII Today: October 15 WWII Today: October 11
1939 The Luftwaffe starts attacks against North Atlantic convoys.
As war heats up with Germany, the British war cabinet holds its first meeting in the underground war room in London.
The Germans start deporting Poles from Posen (Poznan), largest city of western Poland (250,000 people), in their attempt at establishing “pure and Germanic provinces” in Poland.
President Roosevelt establishes an advisory committee on the use of uranium.
1940 Churchill broadcasts to France, ‘Frenchmen rearm your spirits before it is too late.’
1941 Units of 6th Army capture Stalino in the industrial Donets Basin.
1942 The South Africa Premier, Field-Marshal Smuts, makes a historic speech to both Houses of Parliament saying, ‘The stage is set for the last, the offensive stage’.
General Mark Clark lands by sub at Cherchel, Algeria for clandestine meeting with Vichy French in preparation for the upcoming Allied invasion.
WWI ace Eddie Rickenbacker’s B-17 ditches in the central Pacific; crew afloat for 24 days.
Congress passes Revenue Act of 1942, which raises $7 billion in new income taxes and reduces deductions, adding 13 million new taxpayers into the system.
1944 Aachen finally falls to the U.S. First Army, earning the distinction of being the first German city to be captured. 12,000 German prisoners have been taken since the 2nd October. Breskens is captured by the Canadians, but fighting continues for 10 more days in the pocket.
Lt. Frances Slanger killed by German shell in her tent, the first American nurse killed in France.
1945 The U-boat pens in Hamburg are blown up by British Engineers using German explosives.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: January 18 WWII Today: December 11 WWII Today: October 14
1939 Pope Pius XII publishes his first encyclical, Summi pontificatus,decrying racism, dictators, and treaty violations.
1940 Italian planes bomb Cairo for the first time, also bomb US-run oil facilities in Bahrain.
1941 The Aircraft Carrier USS Hornet (CV-8) commissioned under Capt. Marc Mitscher.
Germans massacre 2300 Serbians in Kragujevac in response to partisan killing of 10 Germans.
1942 US War Production Board orders stop to all non-essential civil construction projects.
Southern Conference on Race Relations issues Durham Manifesto urging voting rights and equal educational and job opportunities.
1943 An allied agreement to set up UN commission on war crimes is announced in London.
A delayed-detonation bomb explodes at the central post office in Naples, Italy, injuring seventy-two people. When they retreated three weeks earlier, the Germans left behind scores of booby traps.
The Russian attacks from Bukrin bridgehead are bloodily repulsed.
A U.S. Navy PBY Catalina and an Japanese Navy Mitsubishi G4M (Betty) bomber exchanged fire off Attu. As the last air combat action in the Alaska Territory’s Aleutian Islands, the incident also marked the last combat fought in any of the fifty United States
1944 The Red Army captures Belgrade, while Yugoslav partisans capture Dubrovnik.
The Belgrade Offensive ended in Partisan/Soviet victory when the capture of Belgrade itself was completed.
The Greek government-in-exile returned to Athens
The U.S. Sixth Army landings in the Philippines begin on the East Coast of Leyte, but the 60,000 men sent ashore encounter stiff Japanese resistance.
Gen. Douglas MacArthur stepped ashore at Leyte in the Philippines, 2 1/2 years after he’d said, “I shall return.”
Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: February 17 WWII Today: September 14 WWII Today: March 11
1939 Germany officially incorporates western Poland into the Reich.
1940 Convoy HX-79 (49 ships), sailing from Halifax in Canada to Britain, is attacked by 5 U-boats between the 19th and 20th October in the NorthÂ Atlantic. The British lost 12 ships for 75,063 gross tons, while not a single U-boat was lost. The destroyer Venetia sinks after hitting mine inÂ Thames Estuary.
The Australian 7th Division sets sail for the Middle East.
1941 Army Group Centre finally clears the Vyazma pocket capturing 670,000 Russians, 1,000 tanks and 4,000 guns. Stalin announces he will stay in Moscow and declares state of siege in Moscow and orders its defense to the last.
U.S. freighter “Lehigh” sunk in South Atlantic.
1942 General Friedrich von Paulus pleads with the Fuhrer and the German High Command for supplies and reinforcements for his army, under seige atÂ Stalingrad. He receives nothing but the order to fight to the last man.
The Japanese submarine I-36 launches a floatplane for a reconnaissance flight over Pearl Harbor. The pilot and crew report on the ships in the harbor, after which the aircraft is lost at sea.
German Jews no longer allowed meat, wheat products, milk, or eggs.
US War Production Board mandates tin can collection in cities with a population greater than 25,000.
1943 The offensive by the US 5th Army along the Volturno river bogs down due to bad weather and a skillful German defense.
1944 Field Marshal Model gives up the attempts to relieve Aachen.
The Germans evacuate Belgrade.
Hitler orders the total destruction of Warsaw. The German 4th Army withdraws from the Tilsit area.
The British capture an important Japanese supply depot at Mohnyin in Burma.
The U.S. Navy announced that black women would be allowed into the Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES).
The first two black WAVES officers, Harriet Ida Pikens and Frances Wills, were sworn in December 22 of that year. Of the 80,000 WAVES in the World War II, 72 Black women served, normally under integrated conditions.
Japanese Vice-Admiral Onishi Takijino orders the formation of Special Attack Group of kamikazes to attack Allied ships around the Philippines.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: Captain Ben Dix – October 3, 1943 Pearl Harbor – December 7, 1941 WWII Today: April 25
1939 The Russians prepare to hand over 30,000 Polish soldiers and refugees to the Nazis who respond with their own prisoner exchange.
The first Jewish ghetto is established in Lublin.
1940 Britain reopens the Burma road, which had been closed for three months on the condition of progress being made towards peace between Japan and China. No progress had been made towards peace at the time of reopening.
1941 German units are now only 80 miles west of Moscow.
Raids began against submarine pens on Bay of Biscay, to protect North Africa invasion, but pens survived with 12-foot concrete roofs, defended byÂ Luftwaffe’s Me109 and FW190 fighters.
1942 Hitler orders German troops to shoot all captured allied commandos, ‘to the last man’.
An advance party of four Norwegian Special Operations Executive (SOE) Commandos are dropped by parachute to reconnoitre the area around the German ‘heavy water’ (atomic weapons development) plant at Telemark, Norway.
The advance by Army Group A toward the Black Sea port of Tuapse is halted due to difficult terrain and stubborn Soviet resistance. After intensifying their raids during the early part of the October, German and Italian daylight bombing raids over Malta are finally suspended.
The drain on aircraft being sent to other fronts has left little alternative.
Vice Admiral William F. Halsey named as the new commander of the South Pacific Area, in charge of the Solomons-New Guinea campaign.
1943 Japanese troops go on a murderous rampage in China, burning to death the populations of several villages and forcing peasants to jump blindfolded off cliffs.
1944 The call up for the Volksturm begins in Germany, with all able-bodied men from 16 to 60 to be conscripted. German radio says 50,000 officers haveÂ been killed so far in war. Himmler becomes Commander-in-Chief, Forces of Interior.
German forces thrust into Slovakia.
Russian troops cross the Norwegian frontier.
Lt. General Joseph Stilwell is recalled from China by president Franklin Roosevelt.
Fourteen B-29s based on the Marianas attack the Japanese base at Truk.
1945 The first open session of the International Military War Crimes Tribunal indicts 21 top Nazis.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: October 3 WWII Yank Magazine Pin Up: Dusty Anderson WWII Today: April 9
1939 French troops are pushed back in the Saar region.
President Roosevelt prepares to sign an executive order closing all U.S. ports to submarines from belligerent nations.
1941 Destroyer USS Kearny damaged by German torpedo off Iceland;11 Americans are killed.
US House of Representatives allow merchantmen to be armed.
Taganrog on the Sea of Azov is captured by Army Group South.
Kimmel improves naval reconnaissance at Pearl Harbor but not 360-degree nor 24-hour patrols.
In Convoy SC-48 off Iceland, U-568 torpedoes destroyer USS Kearny; first US casualties of the war—11 killed, 22 wounded. U-boats sink seven other ships in Convoy SC-48.
US Army Air Force establishes Air Service Command (supply and maintenance) under Brig. Gen. Henry Miller at Wright Field, OH.
1942 Luftwaffe abandons daylight raids against Malta.
Germans take Tractor Factory in Stalingrad.
Abel’s Field opens at Fasari, New Guinea, named after missionary Cecil Abel who constructed the airfield with native help.
1943 The US and Japan exchange 3,000 civilian prisoners in Goa.
Germans haul art from Monte Cassino Abbey to Rome as Allies approach; most of the monks, nuns, orphans, schoolchildren, and refugees go to Rome as well.
The last German auxiliary cruiser in Pacific, Michel, sunk by the US submarine Tarpon off Chi Chi Jima.
1944 German forces successfully repulse heavy Soviet attacks near Debrecen.
Eichmann returns to Hungary.
French halt offensive through Vosges Mountains toward Belfort Gap in France.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: September 10 WWII Today: September 16 Yank Magazine Pin Up: Rita Hayworth
1939 A German air attack damages the British cruisers HMS Southampton, HMS Edinburgh and the destroyer HMS Mohawk in the Firth of Forth, in Scotland.
Heavy German attack on Western Front halted.
German bombers attack Forth and Rosyth bridges.
1940 Benjamin O. Davis becomes the U.S. Army’s first African American Brigadier General.
U-124 torpedoes and sinks the merchant ship Trevisa of Convoy SC-7 south of Iceland, 7 are killed. Convoy SC-7 (30 ships) is on the final leg of its journey from Sydney to Aberdeen, and is attacked by 7 U-boats in the North Atlantic between the 16th and 19th October. Losses amount to 20 ships for 79,646 gross tons. No U-boats were lost.
1941 Moscow now considered in real jeopardy. Following the evacuation of the Soviet government and diplomatic corps from Moscow to Kuibyshev, panic begins to spread among the civilian population, with thousands fleeing the city to places further east, but Stalin decides to stay. Odessa falls to the Romanians after a Soviet evacuation by sea. During the 2 month siege, the Romanians have suffered 98,000 casualties.
The Japanese government falls. Prince Konoye is replaced by Hideki Tojo, Japan’s minister of war.
Admiral Harold R Stark, US chief of Naval Operations warns of potential hostilities between Japan and the USSR and possibly between Japan and the USA.
1942 The naval convoys assemble for Operation ‘Torch’, the Anglo-American landings in French North Africa.
The Japanese are forced back by Australians at Templeton Crossing, New Guinea. The shelling of Henderson Airfield continues.
1943 Vatutin launches a 4-day breakout attempt from the Bukrin bridgehead south of Kiev. Koniev launches an offensive to cut off the First Panzer Army on Dnieper River.
Jews in Rome rounded up, with over 1,000 sent to Auschwitz.
1944 The U.S. First Army surrounds Aachen.
The Red Army enters German territory near Goldap in East Prussia. Thousands of German civilians flee the area in panic.
U.S. Rangers land on islands in an approach to Leyte Gulf, in the Philippines.
1945 Peron returns to Argentine politics as a ‘strong man’.
1946 Ten Nazi war criminals are hanged in Nuremberg, Germany. These including the Fuhuer’s top military advisor, General Alfred Jodl. In a posthumous retrail in 1953, the courts rule that Jodl was involved only in regular military operations and clear his name of all charges.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: August 7 WWII Winchester Ad WWII Today: August 18
1940 Bomb holes roof of Balham tube station: 64 killed.
Italian submarine Toti sinks British submarine Rainbow.
16 million Americans already registered for National Service.
Heavy Luftwaffe raid on London, Birmingham, and Bristol starts 900 fires.
Italy demobilizes 300,000 soldiers for the harvest, leaving only 100,000 for upcoming invasion of Greece.
1941 Odessa, a Russian port on the Black Sea which has been surrounded by German troops for several weeks, is evacuated by Russian troops.
1942 Japanese bombard Henderson Field at night again from warships.
4,500 Japanese troops land as reinforcement for Guadalcanal as battle continues.
Japanese execute three American airmen captured after Doolittle raid.
US 92nd Infantry Division (“Buffalo Soldiers”) reactivated at Fort Huachuca AZ, composed of African-American troops.
US begins rationing of fuel oil for heating in the East and Midwest.
1943 General de Lattre de Tassigny escapes from Vichy France.
1944 The largest number of sorties on single night is made by the RAF, with 1,576 in all.
British forces liberate Greece,which then erupts in a cival war between monarchists and communists.
Russians secure Petsamo region of southern Finland. Germans troops fall back towards northern Norway in the face of strong Russian attacks.
The Hungarian chief of state, Admiral Horthy, shortly after announcing Hungary’s withdrawal from the war against the Russia, is taken prisoner by a commando unit led by SS major Otto Skorzeny. A new government under Ferenc Szalasi vows to continue the alliance with Germany.
Deportation of Jews from Hungary resumes after a temporarily halt due to international political pressure to stop Jewish persecutions.
The British and Chinese begin an offensive from Myitkyina to Bhamo in northern Burma.
1945 Vichy French Premier Pierre Laval is executed by a firing squad for his wartime collaboration with the Germans.
1946 Nazi war criminal Hermann Goering poisoned himself hours before he was to have been executed.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: July 14 WWII Today: June 8 WWII Today: November 10