Archive for the ‘WWII History’ Category
1940 Churchill dispatches a heavily armed convoy with 150 tanks to reinforce the middle east.
The first cross-Channel artillery duel—Germans bombard Dover and British reply.
1942 Brazil declares war on Germany and Italy after 16 ships lost to German U-boats, opening airbases to cover Allied shipping and opening the South Atlantic air route; Brazil will be the only South American country to send troops to fight overseas—Brazilian troops will serve with distinction in Italy.
The Admiralty announces the loss of the famous submarine Upholder.
The advance of 17th Army toward the Black Sea port of Suchumi west of the Caucasus bogs down.
Germans reach northern suburbs of Stalingrad.
1943 The Germans evacuate Kharkov.
German Tenth Army activated in southern Italy under General Heinrich von Vietinghoff.
In the Mediterranean, all fighter groups and medium bomb groups in US Ninth Air Force transferred to Twelfth Air Force (Ninth Air Force is to transfer to England).
1944 The Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm begins four days of attacks on the German Battleship Tirpitz and other shipping in the Alten Fjord, Norway.
The Red Army captures Jassy on the Prut river in the southern Ukraine.
French resistance controls all public buildings in Paris.
US flight nurses arrive in southern France and begin air evacuation of casualties to Italy.
1945 U.S. War Office estimates that there are a quarter of a million POW’s and civilian internees in Japanese hands at present.
Soviet troops land at Port Arthur and Dairen on the Kwantung Peninsula in China.
MacArthur says the surrender will be signed in the Tokyo area on the 31st August.
In Manchuria, Japanese surrender to Soviets, and the Soviets seize Port Arthur.
Japanese forces at Mille Atoll, Marshalls surrender aboard destroyer escort USS Levy, the first voluntary handover of an island.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: August 16 WWII Today: December 14 Admiral Yamamoto Quote
1940 Commons allows nationalist forces of Poland, Norway, Belgium, Holland, France and Czechoslovakia to train in Britain under their own flags.
Leon Trotsky is assassinated by a Stalinist agent while in exile in Mexico City.
1941 French resistance member Pierre “Fabien” Georges commits the first violent act of resistance against the Germans in Paris when he assassinates a German naval cadet in the Barches-Rochechouart Metro station. More than 150 Parisians would be shot by the Germans in reprisal.
First Arctic convoy leaves Iceland for Russia.
Marshal Voroshilov tells the people of Leningrad to defend their city to the last. Hitler orders the investment, not capture, of Leningrad, and the transfer of several divisions from the North and Centre to capture the Crimea and the Donets basin, an industrial region vital to the Soviet war effort.
1942 Roosevelt says the perpetrators of barbarism in occupied countries ‘will have to stand in courts of law, in the very countries which they are now oppressing and answer for their acts’.
Japanese attack on Guadalcanal at the Ilu (Tenaru) River, but are soundly defeated by US Marines.
In Hartford, CT, five German spies are convicted of espionage, including Gerhard Kunze, the former leader of the German-American Bund (a Nazi group).
1943 The Labour Party wins the Australian elections.
1944 Representatives from the U.K., U.S. and USSR meet at Dumbarton Oaks in the U.S.A, to discuss post-war international security.
The French First Army surrounds Toulon. The U.S. Third Army reaches Troyes and Reims.
The German Sixth Army is separated from the Romanian 3rd Army on Black Sea coast. Colonel General Friessner orders all German units to withdraw as the Romanians fail to fight and change sides. The Germans, with naval support, open a coastal corridor 10 to 12 miles wide to Army Group North, but Hitler refuses to order the evacuation of Baltic States.
1945 President Harry S. Truman ended the Lend-Lease program that had shipped some $50 billion in aid to America’s allies during World War II.
As the Red Army now hold much of Manchuria, the Japanese Kwantung Army surrenders formally to Major General Shelakor at Harbin.
The Japanese announce that the first U.S. landings will be on the 26th August. A non-fraternization rule with the Japanese is to be enforced by the U.S.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: June 16 WWII Today: September 9 WWII Today: March 19
1940 Churchill reviews the progress of air war in Commons and says ‘Never in the field of human conflict, was so much owed by so many, to so few’.
The Luftwaffe withdraws the Ju-87 Stuka dive bomber from strategic operations against England after losing 20 per cent of their Stuka force to the RAF.
Mao Tse-Tung launches ‘100 regiments’ guerrilla offensive against the Japanese in China.
1941 Adolf Hitler authorizes the development of the V-2 missile.
German 11th Army captures Kherson on the Black Sea and opens the gate to the Crimea. German 11th Army captures Kherson on the Black Sea and opens the gate to the Crimea.
1942 The Russians counter-attack to the north of Stalingrad, but elsewhere German troops reach the Volga. The German 48th Panzer Corps, attacks northeast from Abganerovo, but can not break clear of the Russian defences in the hills of Tundutovo. On their northern flank, 4th Corps is also facing resolute Russian resistance.
31 U.S. aircraft touchdown on the newly completed Henderson Field airstrip on Guadalcanal to help the Marines fighting over the control of the island.
1944 The allies seal the Falaise gap, with blocking forces taking 4,000 prisoners. However, the Germans in the Falaise pocket break out along a single road and stream out of the pocket for six hours before the pocket is resealed. The Allies estimate that 10,000 Germans have died in the pocket and 50,000 prisoners taken. Although one German division (77th Infantry Division) is annihilated, 26 extremely weak divisions do escape the pocket. The U.S. 79th Division reaches the west bank of the Seine above Paris. Free French forces rise in Paris, while de Gaulle is reported in France.
The Russians launch an offensive into Romania with 900,000 men (96 divisions), 1,400 tanks and 1,700 aircraft. Advances up to 12 miles are reported as the Russian plan to surround 23 German divisions (360,000 men) takes shape.
1945 Further negotiations in Manila. The Japanese leave at 1pm. MacArthur says that U.S. troops will land on the Japanese mainland within 10 days of signing the surrender.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: March 28 WWII Today: April 15 WWII Today: May 8
1940 Whole of Britain declared a defense area.
Bad weather and a reorganization of fighter strength by the Luftwaffe causes a lull in operations.
Mussolini orders Marshal Graziani to invade Egypt. Italian troops enter the Port of Berbera, the capital of British Somaliland, where they are welcomed by strafing RAF Blenheims. British transport 5,300-5,700 combat troops and 1,000 civilians to Aden, Yemen. August 5-19, British ground losses were 38 KIA, 102 wounded and 120 missing. RAF flew 184 sorties, dropped 60 tons of bombs, lost 7 aircraft destroyed and 10 badly damaged, lost 12 aircrew KIA and 3 wounded. Italian losses were 465 KIA, 1530 wounded and 34 missing.
1941 German submarines sink a Norwegian and 3 British ships from the Convoy OG-71 of 22 ships and 9 escorts in the Atlantic Ocean.
South of Lake Illmen, the Soviet 38th Army is close to outflanking the German 10th Corps, but the German 56th Panzer Corps counterattacks the Soviets and rolls through their positions.
A brigade of the 9th Australian Division which is besieged at Tobruk is relieved by sea, as Polish reinforcements arrive.
1942 Operation ‘Jubilee’, some 6,100 British and Canadian troops conduct a raid-in-force against the port of Dieppe, which ends in disaster. In less than 10 hours of battle, the British and Canadian forces lose 1,380 KIA, 1,600 wounded, 2,000 made prisoner. The RAF loses 107 aircraft and the Royal Navy lose a destroyer. Germans loses are 345 dead or missing and 268 wounded, with total Luftwaffe losses being just 40 aircraft. Civilian casualties are put at 48 dead and 100 wounded.
General Paulus’s 6th Army begins an attack to take Stalingrad itself, although he had still not been joined by Hoth’s 4th Panzer Army.
Auchinleck announces the capture of 10,000 Axis troops in last two months of fighting in North Africa.
Japanese send 4 transport ships with an close escort of a cruiser and 4 destroyers to strengthen their land forces on Guadalcanal, Solomon Is. Movement is covered by 3 carriers, 2 battleships, 5 cruisers and 17 destroyers.
1943 Luftwaffe Chief of Staff, Colonel General Jesehonnek shoots himself.
Russian troops breach the German defense line on the Mius river.
1944 In an effort to prevent a communist uprising in Paris, Charles DeGualle begins attacking German forces all around the city.
The Falaise pocket is now just seven miles by six. The Germans forces are ordered to break out during the night across the Dives. Patton’s armor reaches the Seine at Nantes and makes the first crossing 30 miles North West of Paris. The Germans are granted a truce in Paris to withdraw troops. (WATCH BRITISH NEWSREEL)
1945 The Japanese forces in South China surrender to the Chinese 1st Army in Canton. The Russian Far Eastern Army captures Harbin and Mukden in Manchuria.
16 Japanese surrender envoys arrive on Ie and are taken to Manila for a 5 and a half hour discussion with MacArthur and his staff. Japanese troops on Java receive the cease-fire order.Check out these other WWII Post: WWII Today: August 23 WWII Today: August 24 WWII Today: July 28
1940 Further heavy raids by Luftwaffe on southeast England and southern London. Major damage is done to RAF airfields and fighter commands control system. British claim 144 Germans shot down, later revised to 67 with RAF losses of 33 planes lost but eight pilots safe.
The last of the British rearguard in British Somaliland slip away in darkness, race into Berbera and embark on the morning. British bombers attack Italian units at Laferug and the airfield at Addis Abeba.
Italian aircraft attack Berbera, but there are no more military targets.
Walter P. Chrysler, founder of Chrysler Corporation, dies at age 65.
German-American Bund (Nazi) and Ku Klux Klan hold anti-war rally in New Jersey.
1941 Russians withdraw across the Dnieper River, allowing the 1st Panzer Group to establish a bridgehead across the river at Zaporozhe, in the Ukraine.
President Roosevelt signs extension of Selective Service Act, extending draftees’ service from 12 to 30 months.
Radio Belgrade plays obscure recording of “Lili Marleen” by Lale Andersen, which becomes an instant hit with German troops in North Africa.
John Gillespie Magee Jr., an American serving in the RCAF (age 19) writes his famous poem “High Flight.”
1942 Alexander replaces Auchinleck as C-in-C of the Middle East. Montgomery’s appointment officially announced.
Japan sends a crack army to Guadalcanal to repulse the U.S. Marines fighting there.
1943 Portugal, invoking her 1373 alliance with Great Britain, agrees to allow Allied forces the use of the Azores Islands for naval and air bases.
A U.S. cruiser and destroyer force shells Gioia, Taura and Palmi on the coast of Italy.
1944 Allied air forces fly 3,057 sorties against the Falaise pocket.
The German Seventh Army moves across the Orme but 18,000 prisoners are taken. The Germans begin theÂ evacuations of their troops stationed near the Spanish border and the Gulf of Biscay.
The Red Army recaptures Sandomir in Galicia.
A Japanese escort carrier is sunk by a U.S. submarine off northwestern Luzon, Philippine Is. A Japanese cruiser is sunk by a U.S. submarine east of Samar, Philippine Islands.
1945 In last air conflict of war, US reconnaissance planes are attacked by flak and fighters over Tokyo, 1 killed (photographer Sgt. Anthony Marchione), the last American killed in the war, 2 Japanese fighters are shot down.
US begins parachuting medical teams into Japanese POW camps.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: July 22 WWII Today: July 14 WWII Today: July 24
1940 Hitler announces that a total maritime blockade is to be placed around Britain, with any neutral ships transporting cargo to Britain to be sunk without warning.
Axis financial meeting decides Berlin will replace London as European financial centre after victory.
Duke of Windsor sworn in as governor-general of Bermuda.
British warships bombard Italian ports in Libya. The 5th Indian Division is deployed to the defense of Sudan.
1941 Army Group North in its drive toward Leningrad captures Narva.
The Romanians seal off and begin a siege of the Black Sea port of Odessa.
Sinking of the US-Panama freighter Sessa.
The USA reply’s to Admiral Nomura’s proposals of the 6th August, rejecting any high level meeting until the present differences between Japan and the USA have been resolved.
1942 US Eighth Air Force flies first official bombing mission: 12 B-17s of 97th Bomb Group hit marshalling yards in Rouen, France.
US Marine Raiders “Carlson’s Raiders” made up of 221 Marines conduct two-day raid on Makin in the Gilbert Islands to destroy a radio station; first amphibious landing from subs.
The Germans claim to have reached the Don, less than 100 miles from Stalingrad. Fighting starts in foothills of the Caucasus.
1943 The first Quebec summit opens with the allied plans for the invasion of France being approved by Roosevelt and Churchill.
597 RAF bombers attack Peenemunde on the Baltic coast, the birthplace of the ‘V’ weapons. 376 B-17’s and B-24’s of the US 8th Air Force carry out double raids against the ball-bearing plants at Schweinfurt and the Messerschmitt fighter works at Regensburg, losing 80 aircraft in the process.
German and Italian forces successfully evacuate Sicily across the Strait of Messina, with little interference by the Allies. This allows Montgomery and Patton enter Messina. The whole of Sicily is now in allied hands. The shelling of the Italian mainland from Messina begins.
Heavy US air attacks on the Japanese airfields at Wewak on the North coast of New Guinea, with 215 Japanese planes destroyed for loss of just six USAAF aircraft.
In New Guinea, a Japanese plane is hit during a raid and crashes into a church. The chaplain is killed and several soldiers attending the service are injured.
1944 The remnants of the Vichy French regime in the French capital take flight for Germany as the Resistance comes out into the open and seizes strong points throughout the city. They establish a comic-opera “government-in-exile” in the German city of Sigmaringen until the end of the war. The Citadel at St. Malo surrenders after heavy fighting. Falaise falls to the Canadians and Monty orders the pocket to be sealed. U.S. armor frees Chartres, Orleans and Chateaudun. Field Marshal Model takes over command of German forces in the West from Field Marshal von Kluge who committed suicide because of his involvement in the 20th July bomb plot. Marshal Petain and his staff are interned at Belfort by order of the Fuhrer. The Vichy French government under Premier Laval resigns.
The mayor of Paris, Pierre Charles Tattinger, meets with the German commander Dietrich von Choltitz to protest the explosives being deployed throughout the city.
The Russians reach the East Prussian/Lithuanian border.
1945 U-977 arrives in River Plate estuary and surrenders. The 600-ton U-boat left Kiel on the 13th April.
Three of the Emperor’s family are dispatched to China to carry the news of cease-fire to Japanese troops still fighting there.
Upon hearing confirmation that Japan has surrendered, Sukarno proclaims Indonesia’s independence.
The country of Korea is divided between the United States and the Soviet Union.The Soviets will control everything north of the thirty-eighth parallel, while the United States will oversee the southern portion.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: January 2 WWII Today: January 25 President Roosevelt’s Pearl Harbor Speech
1940 Test platoon of 48 volunteers from 29thInfantry Regiment makes first US Army parachute jump from an aircraft.
Luftwaffe again raids southern England.
Death of Hector Bywater, author of 1925 Great Pacific War.
1941 Stalin acknowledges UK and US aid plan and agrees to the ‘apportionment of our joint resources’.
Anglo-Soviet exchange agreement signed. 56th Panzer Korps of Panzer Group 4 takes Novgorod on the road to Leningrad. German and Romanian forces of Army Group South captures Nikolaev, an important Soviet navalÂ base on the Black Sea.
1943 U.S. troops enter Messina in North eastern Sicily in a final push to clear the island. Axis evacuation of 100,000 troops has been completed.
The Red Army launches an offensive against the Mius line toward Stalino.
The Bialystok Ghetto is liquidated.
1944 Radio Paris, the German-controlled collaborationist radio station, goes off the air. General de Lattre de Tassigny’s French First Army begins to land in force in southern France. Hitler orders the withdrawal of all German forces in southern France. The French Resistance steps up its attacks on German posts along the Swiss border, assaulting Machilly, Saint-Julien and Valleiry. The first two surrender with minimal bloodshed, but the 20 German customs officers at Valleiry are shot out of hand by resistants followingÂ their surrender, along with two French women who were with them. A German relief column arrives too late, shooting seven civilians and burning 20 houses in retaliation.
US Eighth Air Force suffers first attack by Luftwaffe jet fighters (Me 163s), has first loss to a jet, and also destroys a German jet for first time.
Organized Japanese resistance ends on Burma-India border.
1945 Lieutenant General Jonathan Wainwright, who was taken prisoner by the Japanese on Corregidor on May 6, 1942, is released from a POW camp in Manchuria by U.S. troops.
Japanese parliament resigns.
Soviets land on Sakhalin Island.
Churchill first uses term “iron curtain” in speech to House of Commons: “the iron curtain which at the moment divides Europe in twain.”Checkout these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: July7 WWII Today: July 29 WWII Today: December 14
1940 Although ‘Eagle Day’ was the 13th August, due to poor results, Goering decides that the 15th August with instead be known as ‘Eagle Day’. The Luftwaffe launches its greatest attacks so far against the RAF’s airfields, involving more than 1,000 German planes and 1,786 sorties. The Luftwaffe lost 76 aircraft, although these were mainly from Luftflotte 5 which made diversionary attacks from Norway, while the RAF lost 35 fighters and its airfields suffered heavy damage. Twenty German JU88 aircraft from Denmark attack Driffield, Yorkshire, destroying ten Whitley aircraft on the ground.
Off Greece, Italian sub Delfino sinks WWI-era Greek cruiser Helli to try to provoke Greece into war.
1942 The first foreign newspaper since the Revolution appears in Russia. Units of Army Group A reach the foothills of the Caucasus.
The last of 6 remaining merchant of the Pedestal convoy, the tanker Ohio, with 10,000 tons oil on board is towed into Malta by three British warships.
The Japanese submarine I-25 departs Japan with a floatplane in its hold which will be assembled upon arriving off the West Coast of the United States, and used to bomb U.S. forests.
1943 34,436 US and Canadian troops land on Kiska to find the island evacuated.
Portsmouth has heaviest raid for two years when its bombed by 91 German planes.
The United States ships 60,000 alarm clocks to Britain, to be distributed to workers in war productionÂ plants to improve on-time performance.
The Swedish government forbids all German traffic and transport from crossing over it’s territory.
1944 The allies launch Operation ‘Dragoon’, a combined assault on the South coast of France from Toulon to Nice. 9,000 airborne troops are landed, along with 90,000 by sea. Six towns and 2,000 prisoners are taken. About 200,000 Germans (23 divisions) are in the 40-mile long, 1l-mile wide (at narrowest point)
Argentan-Falaise gap, but start to pull out as Anglo-Canadian troops resume the attack to the North. Adolf
Hitler describes this as ‘The worst day of my life’.
Kluge’s staff car is strafed. He is replaced by Model who retreats to the Seine.
1945 Gasoline and fuel oil rationing ends in the United States.
VJ-Day is declared in Britain and huge crowds cheer King and Queen en route to Westminster for the State opening of Parliament. The British release details of one of most closely guarded secrets of war, RADAR.
The Japanese Government resigns and the war minister commits suicide. MacArthur becomes the Supreme Commander for Allied Powers in the Pacific.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: July 28 Evelyn Ankers WWII Pin Up WWII Today: November 11
1940 Air activity less pronounced, but Germans attack Southampton and Hastings; reported losses Germans 31, RAF 7.
Ministry of Home Security announces that parachutes had been found in Derbyshire, Yorkshire and Scotland, but no evidence of Germans discovered.
As Italians advance in British Somaliland, British evacuate Berbera, the capital.
A plane crash in Canberra, Australia kills top Army officers and government ministers, leading to fall of Menzies government.
1941 Roosevelt and Churchill sign the Atlantic Charter declaring general principles for a free post-war world.
President Roosevelt announces US will not allow U-boats to attack British shipping in western hemisphere.
Franciscan priest Maximilian Kolbe volunteers to be executed in place of a condemned man at Auschwitz; he will be canonized.
74% of Americans still oppose war.
1942 German forces cross the upper Kuban river at Krasnodar in the Caucasus.
Dwight D. Eisenhower is named the Anglo-American commander for Operation Torch, the invasion of North Africa.
1943 The Eighth Army is now only 29 miles from Messina. Italy declares Rome to be an open city by Italians.
The U.S. government sets aside 10 million barrels of beer, a sixth of the the nation’s production, for use
by the military. This gives the armed services enough beer for each soldier to have a bottle a day, except on Sunday.
1944 Roosevelt and Churchill meet at Quebec where they initial the Morgenthau Plan that calls for the divisionÂ of post-war Germany and its transformation into a purely agricultural country.
Monty launches Operation ‘Tractable’ towards Falaise with a carpet bombing by 800 planes.
The Russians begin an offensive from their Vistula bridgeheads, 100 miles to the South of Warsaw.
1945 Chiang Kai-shek’s representatives sign a treaty of alliance with the Russians.
USAAF B29’s launch the last air raid of the war against Kumagaya.
Japanese military coup and assassination attempt on Emperor Hirohito fails, and Hirohito signs acceptance of unconditional surrender.
The US government orders resumption of civilian car manufacturing.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: June 30 Words at War Episode 27 “Mother America” WWII Today: August 13
1940 Roosevelt agrees to supply 50 First World War destroyers to Britain in return for the lease of naval bases in the Caribbean. Colonel E.L.M. Burns proposes developing a Canadian parachute force. The idea is rejected by the Director of Military Operations in headquarters.
‘Eagle Day’, the first day of the maximum offensive by the Luftwaffe to destroy RAF airfields and gain air supremacy over England in preparation of Operation Sea Lion. The Luftwaffe launches 1,485 sorties, but because of confusion and delays, the main attacks were not mounted until the afternoon. Some airfields were attacked, but not the primary fighter bases. Luftwaffe losses were heavy with 39 aircraft being lost (mainly Ju-87 Stuka’s), while the RAF lost just 15 aircraft. Twelve RAF Blenheim bombers attack Hemsteds airfield in Holland. Only one plane returns.
An air crash in Canberra kills three UAP ministers and Chief of the Australian General Staff.
1941 Canadian Women’s Army Corps established.
Australian Women’s Army Service (AWAS) formed.
Lieutenant General Bernard Montgomery assumes command of British Eighth Army in Egypt.
Japanese secure Buna-Kokoda Trail on New Guinea.
US Army forms Manhattan Engineering District for secret atomic research.
1943 US 10th Engineer Btn. builds “bridge in the sky” along steep seaside cliff at Cape Calava, Sicily.
1944 British & Indian troops cross into northern Florence via historic Ponte Vecchio, securing city with help of Italians.
1945 The Mongolian People’s Republic declares a Holy War against the Japanese.
Surrender documents are sent to MacArthur in Philippines.
Lt. Oscar Perdomo of US 507th Fighter Group becomes the last air ace of the war when he shoots down 5 Japanese fighters over Kyushu.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: July 30 WWII Today: May 11 WWII Today: May 21