Posts Tagged ‘today in world war ii’

Mar 14

WWII Points – Adjusted Service Rating Score (ASRS)

World War 2 “Points” the Adjusted Service Rating Score or ASRS, the system for calculating the eligibility of when a U.S. Soldier was allowed to

In early as mid-1943, as troops were being shipped all over the world, it was becoming obvious that bringing all the Soldiers, Sailors and Marins back home after the war was going to be a huge logistic challenge. The U.S. military about 12 million strong in 1945, with approximately 3 million Service men an women in Europe.

On May 10, 1945, two days after Germany’s surrender, the War Department announced a point system to decide who gets to go home first. In this system, every service member received 1 point for every month in service and an additional 1 point for every months of service spent overseas. Awards, namely the Medal of Honor, the Distinguished Service Cross, the Distinguished Service Medal, the Legion of Merit, the Silver Star Medal, the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Soldier’s Medal, the Bronze Star Medal, the Air Medal and the Purple Heart, were worth 5 points each. The Combat Infantryman Badge was not worth anything, leading to much grumbling among the troops.

Campaign participation credits were also worth 5 points each. American participation in the war was divided into 16 separate campaigns, but even the most battle-hardened units only participated in up to nine of these. Finally, each dependent child under 18 years of age was worth an additional 12 points. Moreover, men with three or more minor children could go home regardless of their score. It should be noted that age, marital status and dependents above 18 were not factored into calculating the score.

Initially, service members needed 85 points to go home. Once this was reached, further points did not count towards even higher priority: someone with, say, 105 points was not guaranteed to go home before one with only 85. Another cause for complaint was that the system didn’t reflect the nature of service: a month spent in the rear was worth just as much as a month on the front lines. Initially, officers were not subject the point system: they would go home or continue to serve based on their efficiency and special qualifications.

Units in Europe were placed in four categories. Category I units, consisting of men with low scores were designated as occupational forces and would stay quite a while. Category II units still had a ways to go and were either to redeploy to the Pacific, directly or via the U.S., or return to the States and stay in strategic reserve. Category III units were to be reorganized and then placed in Category I or II. Finally, Category IV units were those with 85 or more points, waiting to be sent home and demobilized.

One practical problem with the system was the categories were designed for units, while the score applied to individual soldiers. As a result, soldiers had to be shuffled around en masse to place all high-scoring soldiers in Category IV units and low-scoring ones to others.

Once demobilization started in earnest, it actually progressed quicker than anticipated thanks to the efforts of Operation Magic Carpet. As a result, the score needed to go home was revised and lowered several times, with different limits established for different types of personnel. In May 1945, for example, limits just within the Medical Corps varied from 88 for administrative personnel to 62 for hygienists and dietitians.

By September 1945, demobilization was proceeding at such a pace that units still in Europe were re-designated according to a new system: Occupation Forces who would stay, Redeployment Forces who would go home and Liquidation Forces, whose soldiers had credits of about 60-79 and had the job of closing down former frontline facilities such as ammunition dumps and field hospitals before getting demobilized.

In December, 1945, an overhaul of the system incorporated the length of service. An officer, for example, could go home with 70 points, but only if he had served for at least four years. In contrast, enlisted women could go home with as little as 32 points and no minimum service time.

By early 1946, the rapid pace of demobilization was causing a manpower shortage in occupation troops in Europe and Japan. Consequently, the War Department slowed the process down. This sparked a slate of protests worldwide. On January 6, 1946, 20,000 soldiers marched on their headquarters in Manila in the Philippines after a ship home was canceled at Christmas. Protests with tens of thousands of participants started in Germany, Austria, France, the United States, India and various Asian locations. A few service members were arrested but Eisenhower suggested they should not be penalized. Demobilization was sped up again and measures were introduced to make overseas service more palatable: training was made shorter, soldiers’ families were able to move to his place of service free of charge and European occupation troops were offered 17-day tours of Europe for a nominal price.

Take a look at these other WW2 Posts:WW2 Camel Cigarette Advertisement WW2 Today: October 14 The Other D-Days

Oct 23

Rosie the Riveter at Work – Color Photos of Women in WWII

From 1940 to 1945  working women had rose from 25% to 35% of the workforce. By the end of the war, approximately one of four married women worked outside the home. In 1943, nearly 310,00 women were working the in  U.S. aircraft industry alone.

Annette del Sur publicizing a salvage campaign for the Douglas Aircraft Company

Part of the cowling for for a B-25 bomber is assembled in the engine department of North American Aviation’s Inglewood plant.

C. & N.W. R.R. Cloe Weaver, mother of four children, employed as a helper at the roundhouse, Clinton, Iowa.

Rosie Taking a Coffee Break

Frances Eggleston,23, from Oklahoma working on the nose of an airplane.

Mary Louise Stepan, 21, used to be a waitress. She has a brother in the Army Air Corps. She is working on parts in the hand mill.

Operating a hand drill at Vaultee-Nashville, woman is working on a Vaultee Vengeance dive bomber at the Nashville Tennessee plant.

Rosie the Riveter hard at work.

Pearl Harbor Widows, October 1942

Rosie the Riveter working on a Consolidated B-24 bomber, Consolidated Aircraft Corp., Fort Worth, Texas.

Women workers, working on a Radial Engine

Rosie working on an radial engines at North American Aviation, Inc., plant in California.

Rosie having lunch on their lunch break.

Rosie riveting the tail section of an airplane.

Tail section quality control.

ALL PHOTOS LIBRARY OF CONGRESS.

Take a look at these other WWII Posts:WWII Kodachrome Color Photographs WWII Today: November 18 WWII Ad: No Broader Shoulders

Oct 16

WWII Color Photos: Kodachrome Photographs – OWI

WWII Color Kodachrome pictures from the Office of War Information (OWI). These photographs were taken between September 1940 and April 1943.

September 1940. Jack Whinery, Pie Town, New Mexico, homesteader, with his wife and the youngest of his five children in their dirt-floor dugout home. Whinery homesteaded with no cash less than a year ago and does not have much equipment; consequently he and his family farm the slow, hard way, by hand. Main window of their dugout was made from the windshield of the worn-out car which brought this family to Pie Town from West Texas. 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Russell Lee, Farm Security Administration.

Shulman’s Market at N and Union Street SW, Washington. 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Louise Rosskam. Alternate view. In one of the many comments for this post, an alert FOS (Friend of Shorpy) points out the posters of Axis leaders Mussolini, Hitler and Admiral Yamamoto in the window. Along the bottom of each it says What do YOU say America?

 

May 1942. Langley Field, Virginia. YB-17 bombardment squadron. “Hitler would like this man to go home and forget about the war. A good American non-com at the side machine gun of a huge YB-17 bomber is a man who knows his business and works hard at it.” 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer.

 

Fort Knox, June 1942. “Light tank going through water obstacle.” 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer, Office of War Information.

June 1942. Army tank driver at Fort Knox, Kentucky. 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer for the Office of War Information

 

June 1942. Crane operator at Tennessee Valley Authority’s Douglas Dam. 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer for the OWI.

 

June 1942. Engine inspector for North American Aviation at Long Beach, California. 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer.

 

June 1942. Fort Knox, Kentucky. “Infantryman with halftrack. A young soldier sights his Garand rifle like an old-timer. He likes the piece for its fine firing qualities and its rugged, dependable mechanism.” 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer for the Office of War Information.

 

June 1942. Inglewood, California. “Punching rivet holes in a frame member for a B-25 bomber at North American Aviation.” 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer for the Office of War Information.

 

June 1942. Lockheed Vega aircraft plant at Burbank, California. “Hollywood missed a good bet when they overlooked this attractive aircraft worker, who is shown checking electrical sub-assemblies.” 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by David Bransby for the Office of War Information.

 

June 1942. Truck driver at the Tennessee Valley Authority’s Douglas Dam. Amazing 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer.

 

August 1942. Corpus Christi, Texas. “After seven years in the Navy, J.D. Estes is considered an old sea salt by his mates at the Naval Air Base.” 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Howard Hollem, Office of War Information.

 

August 1942. Corpus Christi, Texas. “Working inside the nose of a PBY, Elmer J. Pace is learning the construction of Navy planes. As a National Youth Administration trainee at the Naval Air Base, he gets practical experience. After about eight weeks, he will go into civil service as a sheet metal worker.” 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Howard R. Hollem

 

August 1942. Mechanic Mary Josephine Farley works on a Wright Whirlwind motor in the Corpus Christi, Texas, Naval Air Base assembly and repairs shop. 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Howard R. Hollem.

 

September 1942. Inglewood, California. Riveting team working on the cockpit shell of a C-47 heavy transport at North American Aviation. “The versatile C-47 performs many important tasks for the Army. It ferries men and cargo across the oceans and mountains, tows gliders and brings paratroopers and their equipment to scenes of action.” 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer for the Office of War Information.

 

Long Beach, California. October 1942. “Annette del Sur publicizing salvage campaign in yard of Douglas Aircraft Company.” 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer for the Office of War Information.

 

October 1942. “American mothers and sisters, like these women at the Douglas Aircraft Company plant in Long Beach, California, give important help in producing dependable planes for their men at the front.” 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer for the Office of War Information.

 

October 1942. “Lieutenant ‘Mike’ Hunter, Army test pilot assigned to Douglas Aircraft Company, Long Beach, California.” 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer for the Office of War Information

 

October 1942. “Noontime rest for an assembly worker at the Long Beach, Calif., plant of Douglas Aircraft Company. Nacelle parts for a heavy bomber form the background.” 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer.

 

October 1942. “Testing electric wiring at Douglas Aircraft Company. Long Beach, California.” 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer.

 

October 1942. “Thousands of North American Aviation employees at Inglewood, California, look skyward as the bomber and fighter planes they helped build perform overhead during a lunch period air show. This plant produces the battle-tested B-25 ‘Billy Mitchell’ bomber, used in General Doolittle’s raid on Tokyo, and the P-51 ‘Mustang’ fighter plane, which was first brought into prominence by the British raid on Dieppe.” 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer for the Office of War Information.

 

October 1942. Assembling switchboxes on the firewalls of B-25 bombers at North American Aviation’s Inglewood, California, factory. 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer, Office of War Information.

 

October 1942. Engine installers at Douglas Aircraft in Long Beach, California. 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer.

 

October 1942. Experimental staff at the North American Aviation plant in Inglewood, Calif., observing wind tunnel tests on a model of the B-25 (“Billy Mitchell”) bomber. 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer

 

October 1942. Glenview, Illinois. “Transfusion bottles containing intravenous solution are given final inspection by Grace Kruger, one of many women employees at Baxter Laboratories. When her brother left Baxter to join the Merchant Marine, Miss Kruger, a former life insurance clerk, took his place.” 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Howard R. Hollem for the OWI.

 

October 1942. Inglewood, California. “Young woman employee of North American Aviation working over the landing gear mechanism of a P-51 fighter plane.” 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer.

 

October 1942. Inglewood, California. North American Aviation drill operator in the control surface department assembling horizontal stabilizer section of an airplane. 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer.

 

October 1942. Kansas City, Kansas. “B-25 bomber plane at North American Aviation being hauled along an outdoor assembly line.” 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer for the Office of War Information.

 

October 1942. Riveter at work on a bomber at the Consolidated Aircraft factory in Fort Worth. 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Howard Hollem.

 

October 1942. Workers installing fixtures and assemblies in the tail section of a B-17F bomber at the Douglas Aircraft Company plant in Long Beach, California. 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer.

 

December 1942. A winter afternoon in the North Proviso yardmaster’s office, Chicago & North Western Railroad. 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Jack Delano. Click here for a closeup of the poster on the wall.

 

December 1942. Three West Coast streamliners in the Chicago & North Western yards at Chicago. 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Jack Delano.

 

February 1943. Lucille Mazurek, age 29, ex-housewife, husband going into the service. Working at the Heil and Co. factory in Milwaukee on blackout lamps to be used on Air Force gasoline trailers. 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Howard R. Hollem for the Office of War Information.

 

February 1943. Working on the horizontal stabilizer of a “Vengeance” dive bomber at the Consolidated-Vultee plant in Nashville. 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Alfred Palmer for the Office of War Information.

 

March 1943. “Santa Fe R.R. shops, Albuquerque. Hammering out a drawbar on the steam drop hammer in the blacksmith shop.” 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Jack Delano for the Office of War Information.

 

March 1943. Yardmaster at Amarillo, Texas, rail yard. 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Jack Delano, Office of War Information.

 

April 1943. “Mrs. Thelma Cuvage, working in the sand house at the Chicago & North Western R.R. roundhouse at Clinton, Iowa. Her job is to see that sand is sifted and cleaned for use in the locomotives. Mrs. Cuvage’s husband works as a guard at the Savanna, Illinois, ordnance plant.” 4×5 Kodachrome transparency by Jack Delano for the Office of War Information.

Take a look at these other WWII Posts:

Rosie the Riveter Post WW2 Women WWII Today: November 18 WW2 History