1939 British Expeditionary Force on continent reaches strength of 158,000 in five weeks.
The Soviet Union and Finland begin negotiations concerning the establishment of Soviet air bases on Finnish soil. The Soviet Union also requires Finland to cede territory around lake Ladoga and the Gulf of Finland, plus the Petsamo area in northern Finland. In return the Soviet Union offers to give Finland a chunk of desolate land in central Karelia. The Finns reject the Soviet demands fearing that to accept will only encourage further Soviet demands.
1941 Rumours of an impending capture of Moscow by the German Army cause thousands of civilians to flee the city.
Erich Koch, Reich commisar in Ukraine, announces the closing of all schools there. According to Koch, “Ukraine children need no schools. What they’ll have to learn will be taught to them later by their German masters.”
1942 The first night raid on Britain by Luftwaffe for 15 days.
The US Navy surprises a Japanese naval squadron in the night ‘Battle of Cape Esperance’, off Savo Island in the Solomons. The Japanese lose one cruiser and a destroyer, while the US Navy loses just a single destroyer.
1944 The RAF complete the flooding of Walcheren with a 102-bomber raid near Veete.
US First Army begins battle for Aachen, Germany.
The Red Army captures Klausenburg in Romania as Hungary and the Soviet Union begin negotiations for a ceasefire.
U.S. air raids against Okinawa begin.
1945 Negotiations between Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek and Communist leader Mao Tse-tung break down.
Nationalist and Communist troops are soon engaged in a civil war.
US Marines land at Tsingtao, China to slow Communist advances; Japanese troops in Tsingtao surrender to US.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: April 27 WWII Today: March 12 WWII Today: June 2
1938 The Hungarian army, with the sanction of its German allies, retakes territory in Czechoslovakia that was stripped from the Austro-Hungarian Empire after WWI.
1939 The Soviet Union signs and agreement with Lithuania that allows the Soviets to establish military bases in the country.
Hitler forms Winter Relief, forced charitable contributions from German civilians.
Chinese troops recapture all territory in Hubei, Hunan, and Jiangxi Provinces.
1940 German children 10-18 required to join Hitler Youth or Nazi League of German girls.
Hitler meets with Franco at Hendaye, France, but fails to convince him to lead Spain into the war.
1941 The 250th ‘Blue’ Division, made up of Spanish volunteers and formed within days of the German attack on the Soviet Union, goes into action against the Russians for the first time in the sector between Lake Illmen and the west bank of the Volkhov river. General Zhukov is put in charge of the West Front for the defence of Moscow. Army Group South concludes the battle along the Sea of Azov and takes 100,000 prisoners.
1942 German and Italian bomber forces begin a major offensive against the British island of Malta in the Mediterranean.
1943 With the war’s tide turning, the Franco government orders the Spanish 250th ‘Blue’ Division home. A few thousand volunteers, however, refuse to abandon the struggle against Communism and enlist in a so-called “Blue Legion” that is attached to the German 121st Infantry Division.
Chiang Kai-shek took the oath of office as president of China.
1944 The American 24-hour surrender ultimatum to Germans at Aachen is rejected. The Canadians enter the Breskens Pocket along the Scheldt with amphibians.
The British take Corinth as Army Group E begins its final retreat from Greece.
The Red Army breaks through the German lines in Serbia as it moves towards Belgrade.
The Russians reach the Baltic at Memel and cut off Army Group North (26 divisions) in the Kurland for the rest of the war. The rebellion against the Tiso government in Slovakia is put down by the German Army.
U.S. B-29 Superfortresses pound Formosa and Okinawa. The Formosa bombardment lasts seven days, during which over 650 Japanese planes are reported as destroyed.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: July 19 WWII Today: September 6 WWII Today: August 15
1939 Chamberlain announces committee of ministers to co-ordinate the economy.
Hitler issues orders for the invasion of France and the Low Countries. This first plan called for the German Army to wheel through Belgium as they had done during World War One, although this time they were to invade Holland as well. Only the start date wasn’t specified, although Hitler was thinking of November. However, bad weather and demands by his generals for more preparation time caused postponement until the following year.
1940 Churchill is unanimously elected leader of the Conservative Party.
Dutch decree, bans Jews and ‘half-Jews’ from public employment.
Luftwaffe bomb pierces dome of St. Paul’s Cathedral in London, destroying the high altar.
The Germans begin occupying Romanian oil fields.
President Roosevelt releases policy allowing blacks to serve as officers for black units; Army begins to recruit black nurses and doctors to care for black patients only.
1941 President Roosevelt in a message to Congress urges the repeal of Section 6 of the Neutrality Act which would allow the arming of U.S. merchant ships against “the modern pirates of the sea”, the U-boats.
Hitler announces that the war in the East, for all intents and purposes, has already been decided in favour of the Reich.
1942 The Red Army ends its system of dual leadership by abolishing the position of the Communist political commissar in favor of a single military commander in its various units.
Nazi leader Martin Bormann rules that “the permanent elimination of the Jews….can no longer be carried out by emigration” but must proceed “by the use of ruthless force in the special camps of the east”.
1943 The Russians now control the Kuban peninsula on the Black Sea, after the successful evacuation of all German and Romanian troops into the Crimea.
1944 The 1st Bulgarian Army attacks towards Nis in Yugoslavia.
Admiral Nimitz decides to invade the island of Iwo Jima, 700 miles to the South of Japan.
The Fourth Moscow Conference opens between Churchill and Stalin.
1945 Typhoon Louise hits Okinawa, killing 36 and destroying hundreds of US ships, the most damaging storm encountered by the US Navy.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: July 31 WWII Today: September 6 Words at War: White Brigade
1939 RAF reconnaissance planes shoots down a German flying boat over the North Sea.
The American cargo ship “City of Flint” and its crew are captured by a German warship, despite the fact that the United States and Germany are not at war. The American sailors are eventually freed when the Germans are forced to dock in Norway.
An SS unit executes 20 Poles in the Jewish cemetery in Swiecie.
1940 The RAF attacks Berlin. Churchill makes statement to Commons claiming that bombing casualties are falling.
RAF forms Eagle Squadrons for volunteer American fighter pilots.
RAF ace, Czech pilot Jozef Frantizek (28 kills), killed in crash in Surrey.
First Indian Air Force pilots arrive in UK.
Churchill makes statement to Commons and claims that the Germans have the capability to ‘throw 500,000 men onto salt water or into it’.
Another heavily escorted supply convoy sets sail for Malta from Alexandria. However, bad weather stops the Italian fleet from putting to sea and the convoy arrives safely. Only the escorts return trip to Alexandria, they are attacked by a force of Italian Destroyers and Torpedo boats.
No casualties are suffered by the Royal Navy, but the Italians lose 2 destroyers and 2 TorpedoÂ boats sunk and 1 Destroyer damaged.
Churchill makes statement to Commons that the Burma Road is to be reopened.
1941 In a letter to Stalin, President Roosevelt promises U.S. military aid to the Soviet Union.
1942 The final plans for the invasion of Northwest Africa (‘Operation Torch’) are issued.
Strong Japanese rearguard action against the Australians at Templeton Crossing on the Kokoda Trail in New Guinea.
1944 Units of the U.S. Ninth Army reach the outskirts of Aachen on the German border.
1945 Rudolph Hess is flown from England to Germany to stand trial.
President Harry S. Truman announced that the secret of the atomic bomb would be shared only with Britain and Canada.
1945 Nazi Rudolf Hess (who stole plane May 10, 1941 and flew to Scotland in unauthorized attempt to negotiate peace with Britain) is flown from England for Nuremberg Trials.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: July 1 WWII Yank Magazine Pin Up: Irene Manning WWII Today: August 8
1939 Heinrich Himmler made Commissioner for Consolidation of the German Race—to eliminate “inferior” people from the German Reich.
1940 German troops enter Romania, at the request of Fascist Gen. Ion Antonescu, to ‘help restrain the Army’.
Beaverbrook announces gifts received for aircraft purchases now total £6,098,826.
Finland rejects a British demand to cease fighting the Soviet Union.
German advance on Moscow continues with the capture of Vyasma. Stalin lifts ban on religion in Russia to boost morale.
Curtin becomes the Prime Minister of Australia.
Japanese protest US embargo on vital materials as “unfriendly act.”
1943 The RAF bombs Stuttgart making use of the Airborne ‘Cigar’ jamming device, killing 1,700 andÂ making 18,000 homeless.
The U.S. Fifth Army is halted by German defenses along River Volturno, 20 miles North of Naples.
Japanese execute approximately 100 American POWs on Wake Island.
1944 The 20th Gebirgsjeager Army retreats towards northern Norway in the face of strong SovietÂ attacks.
A revolt by Jewish slave laborers at Auschwitz-Birkenau results in complete destruction of Crematory IV.
The Eighth Army resumes its attacks on the Gothic Line. The British reach Corinth, land at Nauplion and take the island of Samos.
The US Third Army completes liberation of Luxembourg. First German V-2 rocket hits Antwerp, Belgium.
1945 General Lucian Truscott assumes command of US Third Army, replacing Gen. George Patton, who has been transferred to command US Fifteenth Army due to his criticism of US “de-Nazification” program for German officers.
1949 Iva Toguri D’Aquino, better known as Tokyo Rose, is sentenced to 10 years in prison for treason.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: August 9 WWII Today: July 27 WWII Today: May 2
1939 After a 2 day battle against Soviet tanks and planes and then a 5-day fight against the Germans.
The last remaining Polish troops (17,000 men) surrender to German forces at Kock and Lublin.
Hitler in a speech to the Reichstag announces the victorious conclusion of the Polish campaign and calls upon Britain and France to cease hostilities and come to terms with Germany. This is rejected by both the British and French government’s.
The Japanese abandon Changsha after stiff Chinese defense.
Proclamation by Hitler on the isolation of Jews.
1941 Churchill gives a personal undertaking to Stalin to send a convoy every ten days to Russia’sÂ northern ports.
1942 The setting up of a UN commission to investigate war crimes is announced in Washington.
The III Panzer Corps captures Malgobek at the bend of the Terek river in the Caucasus.
Montgomery issues the final plan to senior commanders for the Second battle of El Alamein.
1943 The U.S. Fifth Army takes Capua and Caserta.
Two Russian armies take Nevel on the boundary between Army Groups North and Centre.
1944 The Canadian 3rd Division attacks the Breskena Pocket, South of the Scheldt.
A Russian offensive by 64 divisions, 750 tanks and 1,100 aircraft commences near Arad in Hungary, with the aim of destroying Army Group South.
US General Joseph Stilwell recalled from position as Chiang Kai-shek’s chief of staff, maintains command over troops in Burma.
1945 General George Patton prepares to turn over command of the Third Army to General Lucian K. Truscott. Patton is relieved of the command because he is believed to be favorably inclined toward the Germans, as well as anti-Semitic. Patton later claims he was “done to death by slanderous tongues”.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: March 30 WWII Today: July 10 WWII Today: June 5
1938 The German government orders all German Jews to have red J’s printed on their passports, in order to more easily identify and track them in the future.
1939 Hitler enters Warsaw in triumph.
The Soviet Union forces a treaty on Latvia that allows the Red Navy to establish bases in her Baltic harbors
The US Navy Hawaiian Detachment opens at Pearl Harbor.
1940 US Naval Reserve and US Marine Corps reserve divisions and aviation squadrons are placed on call for active duty.
1941 Advancing in the southern Ukraine, Panzer Group 1 reaches the Sea of Azov.
Field Marshal Paul von Kleist named commander of German First Panzer Army; Gen. Heinz Guderian over Second Panzer Army.
Marshal Georgi Zhukov ordered to replace Ivan Konev over Soviet Western Front.
1942 Himmler orders all Jews in concentration camps in Germany to be sent to Auschwitz and Majdanek.
1943 German troops complete the evacuation of the island of Corsica.
The first of two heavy raids by a US Navy Task Force against Wake Island, with 61 Japanese aircraft being reported as destroyed.
1944 Canadian troops cross Belgian-Dutch border north of Antwerp.
Germany begins conscription of sixteen-year-olds. Germans lose 36 “Linsen” explosive-packed motorboats in raid off the Scheldt Estuary.
The First Baltic Front begins an offensive South of Riga to cut off Army Group North in Lithuania.
1945 Lt. Louis Zamperini (Unbroken) returns home, over two years after his plane ditched in the Pacific.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: June 21 WWII Today: August 27 WWII Today: June 12
1939 Nazis begin euthanasia on sick and disabled in Germany.
1940 Mussolini and Hitler meet at the Brenner Pass.
Admiralty announces recent sinking of seven German and two Italian submarines.
1942 A Commando raid on Occupied Sark, in Channel Islands capture’s one German soldier.
The fourth German offensive begins in Stalingrad as the XIV Panzer Corps launches an attack in force to capture the Tractor Factory in the northern part of the city.
1943 Organised British resistance ends on Kos. The French complete their take over of Corsica.
Himmler talks openly about the Final Solution at Posen.
In the only US carrier action in north Atlantic: USS Ranger aircraft attack two German convoys at Bodo, Norway, sink 5 ships.
The Free French secure Corsica.
The first Liberty ship docks at Naples’s wrecked harbor.
1944 German minister of propaganda Joseph Goebbels tells the German public that the Allies are launching an offensive in an attempt to end the war before the November election. The Germans, he says, must use guerrilla tactics, if necessary, to resist their enemies.
The Russian 46th Army is within 10 miles of Belgrade.
The British launch Operation ‘Manna’, and intervene in Greece, with 2nd Airborne Brigade landing at Patras. Other landings take on Crete and other Islands in the Aegean.Take a look at these other WWII Posts: WWII Today: September 15 WWII Today: September 9 WWII Today: February 3
Myrna Williams, later to become Myrna Loy, was born on August 2, 1905 in Radersburg, Montana.Later on her family moved to Helena where she spent her youth. At the age of 13, Myrna’s father died of Spanish Flu and the rest of the family moved to Los Angeles.
She attended the Westlake School for Girls, in Los Angeles, where she caught the acting bug. She started at the age of 15 when she appeared in local stage productions in order to help support her family. Mrs. Rudolph Valentino happened to be in the audience one night who managed to pull some strings to get Myrna some parts in her first movies.
Her first film was a small part in the production of “What Price Beauty?” (1925). Later that same year she appeared in “Pretty Ladies” (1925) along with Joan Crawford.
She was one of the few stars tto start in the silent movies and make a successful transition into the sound era. In the silent films, Myrna would appear as an exotic femme fatale. Later in the sound era, she would become a refined, wholesome character.
Her big break came in 1926, when she appeared in the Warner Brothers film “Satan in Sables” (1925) which landed her a contract. Her first appearance as a contract player was “The Caveman” (1926) where she played a maid. Although she was typecast over and over again as a vamp, Myrna continued to stay busy with small parts. Finally, in 1927, she received star billing in “Bitter Apples”.
When her contract ran out with Warner Brothers she signed with MGM where she landed two classic roles. “The Prizefighter and the Lady” (1933), and the other as Nora Charles in “The Thin Man” (1934) with William Powell. After “The Thin Man” (1934), Myrna would appear in five more in the series. Myrna was now a big box-office draw. So much so that in 1936, she was named Queen of the Movies and Clark Gable the king in a nationwide poll of movie goers. Her popularity was at its zenith.
When war broke out Myrna donned a uniform when she joined the Hollywood Chapter of ‘Bundles for Bluejackets’ – helping to run a Naval Auxiliary Canteen and going on fund raising tours. Myrna set up entertainment programs for military hospitals in the Eastern United States, visiting many hospitals herself, where she was very moved by the plight of the soldiers she saw there.
She continued to make films through the 40s and 50s but the roles were fewer and fewer. By the 1960’s the parts had all but dried up as producers and directors looked elsewhere for talent. In 1960 she appeared in “Midnight Lace” (1960) and was not in another until 1969 in “The April Fools” (1969).
Myrna passed away during surgery, on December 14, 1993, in New York City at the age of 88, she had appeared in a phenomenal 129 motion pictures. She was buried in Helena, Montana.
Nickname: Queen of Hollywood The Perfect Wife Queen of the Movies Minnie
Measurements: 35 1/2-26 1/2-33 1/2 (from MGM’s designer Adrian), (Source: Celebrity Sleuth magazine)
Height: 5′ 6″
Spouse: Howland H. Sargeant (1 June 1951 – 31 May 1960) (divorced) Gene Markey (3 January 1946 – 21 August 1950) (divorced) John Hertz Jr. (6 June 1942 – 21 August 1944) (divorced) Arthur Hornblow Jr. (27 June 1936 – 1 June 1942) (divorced)Diana Murphy Bettie Page Lina Romay