Archive for the ‘WWII History’ Category

1940 Hitler orders the postponement of his attack in the west until the Spring. Likely reasons for this are the compromise of ‘Fall Gelb’ and increasing criticism from some commanders that the plan was too predictable. Led by Gerd von Rundstedt, they proposed instead that the main blow should come through the wooded Ardennes region in southern Belgium as the allies would not expect this.

British submarines Seahorse, Undine and Starfish reported sunk after penetrating Heligoland Bight

1941 French forces in Indochina launch an offensive against Thailand after numerous border provocations, but are unable to make much headway on land.

French inflict a naval defeat on Thai forces at Koh-Chang.

1942 Heavy US losses on the Bataan Peninsula as the Japanese troops press the defenders back.

1943 The Eighth Army destroys Rommel’s rearguard at Buerat, in Libya and is now just 300 miles from the Tunisian frontier. Iraq enters the war against all three Axis powers.

1944 Eisenhower takes up his post as C-in-C Allied Expeditionary Forces in Britain

Japanese forces make their last counter-attack on New Britain.

1945 The British Second Army attacks the Germans East of Maas, as the U.S. First and Third Armies meet at Houffalize. The German offensive in the Ardennes is on its last legs.

1940 Nearly twice as many Britons have been killed on the roads since blackout started than by enemy action.

1942 Army Group Centre evacuates the Kaluga sector and takes up winter positions 20 miles to the West.

The Japanese begin their invasion of Burma from Thailand, attacking up the Kra Isthmus. They quickly capture the British airfields around Tenasserim, enabling Japanese fighters to now escort bomber attacks against Rangoon.

1943 US forces launch their final offensive on Guadalcanal.

The Red Army captures Velikiye Luki in the Valday Hills.

The Eighth Army begins a new push in Libya.

1944 The U.S. Fifth Army gains Monte Trocchio, overlooking Rapido River as the Germans withdraw across it. French troops under General Juin capture Monte Santa Croce.

The Russians launch another new offensive around Leningrad.

The Peruvian Government announces its discovery of Axis backed conspirators plotting a coup.

1945 During its drive toward the Oder river, the Red Army captures Kielce in western Poland.

U.S. troops now hold 45 miles of the Lingayen Gulf coast.

1942 General Wavell arrives at Batavia in Java to setup ABDA headquarters. The Japanese launch an attack against the US-Filipino 1st Corps positions on the western side of Bataan.

At the so called Arcadia Conference held in Washington, President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill agree to concentrate the Allied war effort on the European theatre. President Roosevelt also orders that all aliens are to register with the government. This is the beginning of a plan to move Japanese-Americans into internment camps in the belief that these people might aid the enemy.

The German battleship Tirpitz, arrives at Trondheim in Norway, to threaten the Arctic convoys, but it wasn’t until the 23rd January that the British became aware of this threat.

1943 Roosevelt and Churchill’s summit Conference opens near Casablanca in Morocco with the Allied joint staff under General Dwight D. Eisenhower in attendance.

1945 The British 19th Indian Division crosses the river Irrawaddy, to the North of Mandalay.

Zhukov’s 1st Belorussian Front continues its attacks South of Warsaw from two Vistula bridgeheads, one of which holds 400,000 men and 1,700 tanks. Rokossovsky’s 2nd Belorussian Front begins its offensive from its Narev bridgehead against Elbing in East Prussia.

1941 Hitler demands that Bulgaria joins the Tripartite pact, but the Bulgarians play for time.

The Luftwaffe launches a heavy attack against Plymouth.

1942 A Japanese attack just to the east of Mount Natib, begins to pose a threat to the left flank of the US-Filipino 2nd Corps.

The allied conference in London pledges to punish axis war criminals after victory.

1943 The call-up for single girls in Britain is lowered to 19.

1944 The Chinese strengthen their position in the Hukawng Valley in northern Burma.

1945 The British make further gains in central Burma and are now only 30 miles from Mandalay.

The U.S. First Army attacks the Germans between Stavelot and Malmady.

German forces of Army Group E complete their withdrawal from Greece and Albania.

Zhukov’s 1st Belorussian Front begins an offensive toward Pillkallen in East Prussia, against which there is stiff resistance from the 3rd Panzer Army.

The Jørstad Bridge is blown up by the Norwegian resistance, killing 70 Germans.

1940 Soviet bombers raid cities in Finland.

1941 Recruiting of Norwegians for the ‘Nordland’ Regiment of the 5th SS Motorized Division ‘Wiking’ begins.

1942 Hitler orders Admiral Otto Ciliax, who commands the battleships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau and the cruiser Prinz Eugen at Brest, to prepare to return to Germany. The new German battleship Tirpitz, sister ship of the Bismarck is ordered to Norway.

British capture Sollum.

Japan formally declares war on the Dutch East Indies.

Field Marshal von Leeb, C-in-C of Army Group North, requests permission to withdraw his forces south of Lake Ilmen behind the river Lovat, as the 2nd Corps at Demyansk is in serious danger of being cut off. Hitler refuses von Leebs request who resigns in protest. His place as C-in-C of Army Group North is taken up by Field Marshal von Kuechler.

1943 The Red Army begins an offensive to restore the land communications with the encircled city of Leningrad. The Germans abandon a 300 miles salient in Caucasus. And withdraw towards the Kuban Bridgehead. The Red Army gains several more streets in the bloody battle for Stalingrad.

Gen. Leclerc drives the last Germans troops out of the Fezzan in Southern Libya with his Free French forces from Chad.

1944 Churchill and de Gaulle meet for talks at Marrakesh.

1945 The German ‘Nordwind’ offensive is stopped 13 miles from Strasbourg. British and U.S.forces link up in the Laroche area.

Koniev’s 1st Ukrainian Front launches a major winter offensive from its bridgehead across the Vistula at Baranov in southern Poland.

1941 Hitler confirms in Directive No.22, his intentions to send military support to the Italians in Albania. The operation is to be named ‘Alpine Violets’.

The Cruisers HMS Southampton and HMS Gloucester are attacked by German aircraft in the Sicilian channel. HMS Gloucester receives damage, while HMS Southampton is sunk. British submarines begin to make attacks German and Italian convoys crossing to Libya.

Hitler confirms in Directive No.22, his intentions to send military support to the Italians in Libya. The operation is to be named ‘Sunflower’.

1942 The Japanese 5th Division enters Kuala Lumpur, which is the main supply base for the Indian 3rd Corps. By this time Japanese forward elements are coming in to contact with the 8th Australian Division, which puts up fierce resistance, although Japanese amphibious landings to their south force them to retreat and ends British hopes of a protracted defence of Johore.

The Japanese invasion of the Dutch East Indies begins with landings at Tarakan (Borneo) and Manado (Celebes).

The Kriegsmarine begins Operation Drum Beat, the first coordinated attack carried out by five U-boats initially against US shipping along the East Coast of the United States. Their first victim is the 9,000 ton British steamer Cyclops which is sunk by U-123 (Kptlt. Hardegen), 300miles to the east of Cape Cod.

1943 President Roosevelt submits his budget to the U.S. Congress. $100 billion of the $109 billion budget is identified with the war effort.

1944 Ciano and 17 others are shot by firing squad.

660 heavy bombers of the U.S. 8th Air Force carries out attacks against industrial targets at Braunschweig, Magdeburg and Ascherleben.

1945 British troops capture Laroche, 20 miles Northwest of Bastogne.

U.S. troops establish a firm hold on the Luzon beachhead.

1940 German planes attack 12 ships off the British coast; sinking 3 ships and killing 35 people.

Hitler informs his commanders that the attack in the west will begin on the 17th January. On this same day a German light aircraft makes a forced landing at Malines in Belgium, near the German border. The planes occupants were carrying details of the German plans, which alerted the Belgium and Dutch governments to German intentions.

1941 Roosevelt introduces his ‘Lend Lease’ bill to the House of Representatives as House Resolution 1776 (H.R. 1776), after recognizing that neither Britain or China could continue paying indefinitely for material supplied. This allowed the fighting allies to pay the USA back in kind, but after the war. He likened this to ‘lending a neighbor a garden hose to put out a fire’.

The RAF begins Circus operations – co-ordinated bomber and fighter attacks on targets in France. Six Blenheims, escorted by six/nine squadrons of Spitfires and Hurricanes attack supply dumps south of Calais.

Heavy air attacks begin on Malta.

German aircraft surprise the Mediterranean fleet, which is escorting 3 merchant ships to Greece. 40 Ju-87 Stukas attack them, scoring 6 hits on HMS Illustrious and severely damaging her. HMS Warspite also receive damage. Both ships make for Malta and arrive the next day.

Germany and the Soviet Union sign a fresh treaty, which recognizes their existing spheres of influence and affirms current trade agreements.

1942 Colonel-General Ernst Udet, head of Luftwaffe aircraft production and development, commits suicide because of his failure to provide adequate replacements and new improved aircraft models to the Luftwaffe.

1943 After a 55-minute bombardment by thousands of guns and rocket-launchers and employing seven armies, the Red Army begins Operation Ring, the final annihilation of the tattered remnants of 6th Army defending themselves desperately against all odds in the ruins of Stalingrad.

1944 All but one of the Fascist ex-ministers on trial are sentenced to death at Castel Vecchio.

The Russians capture Lyudvipol, 2-3 miles across the Polish border. The Russians propose new Polish border further west on the so-called ‘Curzon Line’. German forces in Dnieper bend are attacked by the Russians for the next five days, but and early thaw aids the German defense.

1945 The German 7th Gebirgsdivision retreats from it’s positions in Lätäseno. Only a very small portion of Finland is still in German hands.

1940 German bombers sink three merchantmen in North Sea.

1941 The Avro Manchester III makes its first flight equipped with four Rolls-Royce Merlin engines in place of the two Rolls-Royce Vultures used on earlier marks. Ordered into production as the Lancaster, it becomes possibly the most famous RAF bomber of all time, after bearing the brunt of the Bomber Command offensive in Europe.

1942 Japanese troops launch an attack against the eastern side of the Santa Rosa-Natib defence line on Bataan, making some gains, although US-Filipino counter-attacks forces them back to their start-line.

1943 Soviet planes drop leaflets on the surrounded Germans in Stalingrad requesting their surrender with humane terms. The Germans refuse.

Italian destroyer Corsaro sank off the coast of Tunisia after hitting a mine.

1944 Countess Ciano escapes to Switzerland and is interned.

British troops capture Maungdaw in Burma.

1945 The U.S. Third Army counter-attacks towards Houffalize, on the southern side of the Ardennes salient.

British troops enter Thebes, to the Northwest of Athens.

U.S. troops land at Lingayen Gulf on Luzon. 100,000 men are ashore in a single day, which is the largest Pacific operation so far.

1940 Rationing of butter, sugar and bacon begins in Britain.

Finnish troops capture 1,000 Russian soldiers near Suomussalmi.

1941 96,000 people now are sleeping in the Underground and Tube stations, 40,000 less than in October.

US budget includes $17,500,000,000 defense appropriation.

1943 General Rokossovsky, C-in-C of Don Front, issues a surrender ultimatum to the 6th Army, guaranteeing “their lives and safety and after the end of the war their return to Germany”. He also promises that “…medical aid will be given to all wounded, sick and frost-bitten…” Paulus rejects this demand for surrender.

1944 Kirovograd falls to Russians.

The trial of Count Ciano and 18 other Fascists responsible for Mussolini’s downfall opens at Castel Vecchio, in Verona.

1940 General Semyon Timoshenko takes command of all Soviet forces in Finland and begins to build up his forces for a decisive offensive.

1941 Tobruk is surrounded, but the British are unable to assault it immediately as supplies and reinforcements need to be brought up.

1942 British forces continue to retreat south through central Malaya as the Japanese force a crossing of the river Slim. The British commander, General Arthur E. Percival, hopes to be able to hold at Johore until at least mid February.

Japanese troops complete their capture of Sarawak and also take Jesselton in northern Borneo.

Japanese attack Bataan in the Philippines.

Roosevelt’s first War Budget includes $13,250 million of defense expenditure.

The Soviet North West Front begins an offensive south of Lake Ilmen in an attempt to encircle Demyansk. At the same time the newly created Volkhov Front launches an attack to force the Germans back from around Leningrad.

1944 The U.S. Air Force announces the production of the first jet-fighter, Bell P-59 Airacomet.

1945 U.S. air ace Major Thomas B. McGuire, Jr. is killed in the Pacific.