Archive for the ‘WWII History’ Category

1940 Hitler meets Franco, the Spanish head of state at Hendaye near the French-Spanish border. Franco declares ‘Spain will gladly fight at Germany’s side’, but remains non-committal regarding Spain’s entry into the war.

The RAF continue its attacks on Berlin.

1941 De Gaulle meets French Resistance and asks to spare the innocent and bide their time.

It is decided that British forces should make their main approach on Gondar in Abyssinia, from the direction of Adowa due to the better road conditions.

Nazis forbid emigration of Jews from the Reich.

1942 Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt arrives in London for a three-week visit as guest of the King.

The battleship Tirpitz leaves Bogenfjord and moves south to Lofjord near Trondheim, where it is to be refitted.

The Western Task Force, destined for North Africa, departs from Hampton Roads, Virginia.

The Second Battle of El Alamein begins with a 1,000-gun bombardment. The Eighth Army gains ground on a 6-mile front and repulses Axis counter-attacks.

The RAF launches bombing raids against the Italian cities of Genoa and Turin.

The previously undefeated Sandai division of the Japanese army suffers its first loss of the war whe it fails to capture Henderson Airfield on Guadalcanal.

1943 A German torpedo boat flotilla sinks the Royal Navy cruiser Charybdis and the destroyer Limborne in a Channel duel.

Russians take Melitopol after 10-days of fighting; Dnepropetrovsk falls to Malinovsky, while a tank army reaches Krivoi Rog.

1944 The 3rd Panzer Corps begin a six day counter attack around Debrecen.

The decisive three-day battle of Leyte Gulf begins. The Japanese lose four carriers, three battleships, six heavy and four light cruisers, 11

destroyers, one submarine and some 500 planes, with approximately 10,000 sailors killed. The first organised use of Kamikaze’s by the Japanese are reported.

1939

“Elections” are held in Soviet-occupied Poland now called “Western Byelorussia” and “Western Ukraine.” The USSR confiscates all property including bank accounts, and replaces Polish currency with the ruble. Poles are fired from their jobs and thrown into jail as the NKVD compiles lists for deportation. Factories, hospitals, schools, are dismantled and shipped to the USSR. Polish education and language is phased out; libraries are closed and books burned. Churches are destroyed and priests arrested. Even the wearing of crosses is forbidden. Owning a typewriter is now a crime.

1940

On a convoy in the North Atlantic, Royal Canadian Navy destroyer Margaree collides with freighter Port Fairy in poor visibility, 400 miles west of Ireland. It is the first convoy mission for the destroyer, and 140 lives are lost.

British Ambassador in Moscow Sir Stafford Cripps tries to woo Russians with three-point co-operation plan.

Deportation of 29,000 German Jews from Baden, the Saar, and Alsace-Lorraine into Vichy France.

1941

50 hostages shot in Nantes, France as reprisal for assassination of the German military commander. 50 more to die if the assassin isn’t caught.

German Major shot in Bordeaux 100 arrested, 50 shot immediately.

Russian partisans explode a bomb at Odessa, killing several Romanian and German officers and soldiers. Romanian Dictator Ion Antonescu orders two hundred Russians executed for every officer killed and one hundred Russians executed for every enlisted man killed.

1942

A Royal Proclamation is signed that reduces the British call-up age to 18.

Against fierce Soviet resistance, the 6th Army capture most of the Red October Steelworks and Barricades factories in the northern part of

Stalingrad. SS put down a revolt at Sachsenhausen by a group of Jews about to be sent to Auschwitz.

1943

The Germans publish a plan to kidnap Hitler, which was allegedly drawn up by the Italians.

Operation ‘Corona’ (the jamming of German night-fighter communications) begins during an RAF raid on Kassel.

1944

The Red Army continues its drive west and captures several towns near the Russian German border.

1939 The Luftwaffe starts attacks against North Atlantic convoys.

As war heats up with Germany, the British war cabinet holds its first meeting in the underground war room in London.

The Germans start deporting Poles from Posen (Poznan), largest city of western Poland (250,000 people), in their attempt at establishing “pure and Germanic provinces” in Poland.

1940 Churchill broadcasts to France, ‘Frenchmen rearm your spirits before it is too late.’

1941 Units of 6th Army capture Stalino in the industrial Donets Basin.

1942 The South Africa Premier, Field-Marshal Smuts, makes a historic speech to both Houses of Parliament saying, ‘The stage is set for the last, the offensive stage’.

Eight American and British officers land from a submarine on an Algerian beach to take measure of Vichy French to the Operation Torch landings.

1944 Aachen finally falls to the U.S. First Army, earning the distinction of being the first German city to be captured. 12,000 German prisoners have been taken since the 2nd October. Breskens is captured by the Canadians, but fighting continues for 10 more days in the pocket.

1945 The U-boat pens in Hamburg are blown up by British Engineers using German explosives.

1943 An allied agreement to set up UN commission on war crimes is announced in London.

A delayed-detonation bomb explodes at the central post office in Naples, Italy, injuring seventy-two people. When they retreated three weeks earlier, the Germans left behind scores of booby traps.

The Russian attacks from Bukrin bridgehead are bloodily repulsed.

1944 The Red Army captures Belgrade, while Yugoslav partisans capture Dubrovnik.

The U.S. Sixth Army landings in the Philippines begin on the East Coast of Leyte, but the 60,000 men sent ashore encounter stiff Japanese resistance.

Gen. Douglas MacArthur stepped ashore at Leyte in the Philippines, 2 1/2 years after he’d said, “I shall return.”

 

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1939 Germany officially incorporates western Poland into the Reich.

1940 Convoy HX-79 (49 ships), sailing from Halifax in Canada to Britain, is attacked by 5 U-boats between the 19th and 20th October in the North Atlantic. The British lost 12 ships for 75,063 gross tons, while not a single U-boat was lost. The destroyer Venetia sinks after hitting mine in Thames Estuary.

The Australian 7th Division sets sail for the Middle East.

1941 Army Group Centre finally clears the Vyazma pocket capturing 670,000 Russians, 1,000 tanks and 4,000 guns. Stalin declares state of siege in Moscow and orders its defense to the last.

U.S. freighter “Lehigh” sunk in South Atlantic.

1942 General Friedrich von Paulus pleads with the Fuhrer and the German High Command for supplies and reinforcements for his army, under seige at Stalingrad. He receives nothing but the order to fight to the last man.

The Japanese submarine I-36 launches a floatplane for a reconnaissance flight over Pearl Harbor. The pilot and crew report on the ships in the harbor, after which the aircraft is lost at sea.

1943 The offensive by the US 5th Army along the Volturno river bogs down due to bad weather and a skillful German defense.

1944 Field Marshal Model gives up the attempts to relieve Aachen.

The Germans evacuate Belgrade.

Hitler orders the total destruction of Warsaw. The German 4th Army withdraws from the Tilsit area.

The British capture an important Japanese supply depot at Mohnyin in Burma.

The U.S. Navy announced that black women would be allowed into the Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES).

1939 The Russians prepare to hand over 30,000 Polish soldiers and refugees to the Nazis who respond with their own prisoner exchange.

The first Jewish ghetto is established in Lublin.

1940 Britain reopens the Burma road, which had been closed for three months on the condition of progress being made towards peace between Japan and China. No progress had been made towards peace at the time of reopening.

1941 German units are now only 80 miles west of Moscow.

Raids began against sub pens on Bay of Biscay, to protect North Africa invasion, but pens survived with 12-foot concrete roofs, defended by Luftwaffe’s Me109 and FW190 fighters.

1942 Hitler orders German troops to shoot all captured allied commandos, ‘to the last man’.

An advance party of four Norwegian Special Operations Executive (SOE) Commandos are dropped by parachute to reconnoitre the area around the German ‘heavy water’ (atomic weapons development) plant at Telemark, Norway.

The advance by Army Group A toward the Black Sea port of Tuapse is halted due to difficult terrain and stubborn Soviet resistance. After intensifying their raids during the early part of the October, German and Italian daylight bombing raids over Malta are finally suspended.

The drain on aircraft being sent to other fronts has left little alternative.

Vice Admiral William F. Halsey named as the new commander of the South Pacific Area, in charge of the Solomons-New Guinea campaign.

1943 Japanese troops go on a murderous rampage in China, burning to death the populations of several villages and forcing peasants to jump blindfolded off cliffs.

1944 The call up for the Volksturm begins in Germany, with all able-bodied men from 16 to 60 to be conscripted. German radio says 50,000 officers have been killed so far in war. Himmler becomes Commander-in-Chief, Forces of Interior.

German forces thrust into Slovakia.

Russian troops cross the Norwegian frontier.

Lt. General Joseph Stilwell is recalled from China by president Franklin Roosevelt.

Fourteen B-29s based on the Marianas attack the Japanese base at Truk.

1945 The first open session of the International Military War Crimes Tribunal indicts 21 top Nazis.

1939 French troops are pushed back in the Saar region.

President Roosevelt prepares to sign an executive order closing all U.S. ports to submarines from belligerent nations.

1941 Destroyer USS Kearny damaged by German torpedo off Iceland;11 Americans are killed.

US House of Representatives allow merchantmen to be armed.

Taganrog on the Sea of Azov is captured by Army Group South.

Kimmel improves naval reconnaissance at Pearl Harbor but not 360-degree nor 24-hour patrols.

1943 The US and Japan exchange 3,000 civilian prisoners in Goa.

1944 German forces successfully repulse heavy Soviet attacks near Debrecen.

Eichmann returns to Hungary.

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1939 A German air attack damages the British cruisers HMS Southampton, HMS Edinburgh and the destroyer HMS Mohawk in the Firth of Forth, in Scotland.

Heavy German attack on Western Front halted.

German bombers attack Forth and Rosyth bridges.

1940 Benjamin O. Davis becomes the U.S. Army’s first African American Brigadier General.

U-124 torpedoes and sinks the merchant ship Trevisa of Convoy SC-7 south of Iceland, 7 are killed. Convoy SC-7 (30 ships) is on the final leg of its journey from Sydney to Aberdeen, and is attacked by 7 U-boats in the North Atlantic between the 16th and 19th October. Losses amount to 20 ships for 79,646 gross tons. No U-boats were lost.

1941 Moscow now considered in real jeopardy. Following the evacuation of the Soviet government and diplomatic corps from Moscow to Kuibyshev, panic begins to spread among the civilian population, with thousands fleeing the city to places further east, but Stalin decides to stay. Odessa falls to the Romanians after a Soviet evacuation by sea. During the 2 month siege, the Romanians have suffered 98,000 casualties.

The Japanese government falls. Prince Konoye is replaced by Hideki Tojo, Japan’s minister of war.

Admiral Harold R Stark, US chief of Naval Operations warns of potential hostilities between Japan and the USSR and possibly between Japan and the USA.

1942 The naval convoys assemble for Operation ‘Torch’, the Anglo-American landings in French North Africa.

The Japanese are forced back by Australians at Templeton Crossing, New Guinea. The shelling of Henderson Airfield continues.

1943 Vatutin launches a 4-day breakout attempt from the Bukrin bridgehead south of Kiev. Koniev launches an offensive to cut off the First Panzer Army on Dnieper River.

Jews in Rome rounded up, with over 1,000 sent to Auschwitz.

1944 The U.S. First Army surrounds Aachen.

The Red Army enters German territory near Goldap in East Prussia. Thousands of German civilians flee the area in panic.

U.S. Rangers land on islands in an approach to Leyte Gulf, in the Philippines.

1945 Peron returns to Argentine politics as a ‘strong man’.

1946 Ten Nazi war criminals are hanged in Nuremberg, Germany. These including the Fuhuer’s top military advisor, General Alfred Jodl. In a posthumous retrail in 1953, the courts rule that Jodl was involved only in regular military operations and clear his name of all charges.

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1940 Bomb holes roof of Balham tube station: 64 killed.

Italian submarine Toti sinks British submarine Rainbow.

16 million Americans already registered for National Service.

1941 Odessa, a Russian port on the Black Sea which has been surrounded by German troops for several weeks, is evacuated by Russian troops.

1942 Japanese bombard Henderson Field at night again from warships.

4,500 Japanese troops land as reinforcement for Guadalcanal as battle continues.

1943 General de Lattre de Tassigny escapes from Vichy France.

1944 The largest number of sorties on single night is made by the RAF, with 1,576 in all.

British forces liberate Greece,which then erupts in a cival war between monarchists and communists.

Russians secure Petsamo region of southern Finland. Germans troops fall back towards northern Norway in the face of strong Russian attacks.

The Hungarian chief of state, Admiral Horthy, shortly after announcing Hungary’s withdrawal from the war against the Russia, is taken prisoner by a commando unit led by SS major Otto Skorzeny. A new government under Ferenc Szalasi vows to continue the alliance with Germany.

Deportation of Jews from Hungary resumes after a temporarily halt due to international political pressure to stop Jewish persecutions.

The British and Chinese begin an offensive from Myitkyina to Bhamo in northern Burma.

1945 Vichy French Premier Pierre Laval is executed by a firing squad for his wartime collaboration with the Germans.

1946 Nazi war criminal Hermann Goering poisoned himself hours before he was to have been executed.

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1939 U47 (Kapitanleutnant Prien) sinks HMS Royal Oak at anchor in Scapa Flow, killing 883. U47 then escapes undetected and returns home to Germany.

The press in Germany declare Prien a hero.

Polish submarine Orzel arrives in Britain having escaped internment in Estonia.

1941 Army Group Centre wipes out the Russian pocket at Bryansk, but only capture about 50,000 prisoners. The rain and mud begins to impede the German advance, but German troops manage to capture Rzhev. Hitler orders that Moscow is to be enveloped, rather that assaulted directly.

Russian troops fall back in the southern Ukraine as the Germans make for the port of Rostov.

1942 Japanese bombard Henderson Field at night from warships then send troops ashore onto Guadalcanal in the morning as U.S. planes attack.

In the northern part of Stalingrad, units of the 6th Army advance in bitter fighting and surround the heavily defended Tractor Factory, following a series of devastating attacks (over 3,000 sorties) by bombers of Luftflotte 4.

1943 The US 8th Air Force delivers a heavy attack against the ball bearing plants at Schweinfurt. However, of the original force of 291 B-17’s, 198 are either shot down or damaged beyond repair, while the Luftwaffe has lost only about 40 fighter planes.

1943 German forces evacuate the Zaporozhe bridgehead on the eastern bank of the Dnieper river.

Massive escape from Sobibor as Jews and Soviet POWs break out, with 300 making it safely into nearby woods. Of those 300, fifty will survive.

Exterminations then cease at Sobibor, after over 250,000 deaths. All traces of the death camp are then removed and trees are planted.

Jose P. Laurel, a distinguished pre-war Filipino statesman, takes office as “president” of the Philippines after being elected by a Japanese puppet “National Assembly” on Sept. 25. Surviving two assassination attempts by Filipino guerrillas, Laurel’s government enjoyed little popularity. A general amnesty after the war spared him a treason trial.

1944 The British liberate Athens and Piraeus and also land on Corfu.

Russian troops and Yugoslav Partisans force their way in to Belgrade.

German Field Marshal Rommel, suspected of complicity in the July 20th plot against Hitler, is visited at home by two of Hitler’s staff and given the choice of public trial or suicide by poison. He chooses suicide and it is announced that he died of wounds suffered earlier from a strafing attack.

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